Agriculture Class 10 Notes | Geography Chapter- 4 | CBSE Social Science
Introduction:- In Agriculture class 10 notes we talk about Type of farming, Rice, Wheat, Tea, Bhoodan-Gramdan and so many other topics we read in Agriculture class 10 notes. So let’s start it.
What is Agriculture?
- Its primary activity in India, 2/3rd of India population is engaged in agricultural activity.
- And it provides food that we consume and raw material for various industries.
- Three Type of Farming:-
- Primitive subsistence farming,
- Intensive subsistence farming,
- Commercial farming.
1. Primitive subsistence farming:-
- This type of farming is farming in which the old method of farming is used. It’s still practiced in a few pockets (area) of India.
- Primitive subsistence farming practiced on small patches of land.
- It’s done by using a primitive(old) tool like a hoe and digging sticks.
- It’s done by a family member/community labor. It depends upon monsoon.
- Natural fertility & other environmental condition are used to grow the crop. The objective of farming to sustain their families.
EX:- Slash & burn agriculture
- It’s one of the farming of slash and burns agriculture.
- In this type of farming farmers clear a patch of land cultivation.
- Cereal and other food crops are grown on the land.
- When soil fertility decreases, farmers shift to another area.
- Where they clear a fresh patch of land of cultivating.
- This type of shifting allows regaining the natural fertility of the soil through natural processes.
- The land is not more productive in this type of farming because the farmer is not able to use the modern technique of farmers.
Fact:- Different names of slash and burn in a different parts of the country:- 1. Jhumming → Assam, Nagaland 2. Milpa → Mexico, Central America. 3. Bewar → Madhya Pradesh. 4. Pama, Dabi – Odisha.5. Roca – Brazil.
2. Intensive subsistence farming:-
- It’s practice in the area of high population. It’s labor-intensive farming.
- In its high does of chemical fertilizer are used with a high quantity of irrigation.
- The objective of this of farming is subsistence not for profit.
- There is enormous pressure on agricultural land due to the right of inheritance means in this the lands are distribute among families generation to generation.
- So the size of landholding becomes small and the farmer produces more and more from the limited land so there is enormous pressure on agricultural land.
3. Commercial farming:- 
- This type of farming’s main objective is to earn a profit.
- The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs. Like:- HYV seed, chemical fertilizer, etc.
- The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from region to region like rice is produced in Haryana and Punjab for profit but in Odisha its a subsistence crop. Ex:-Plantation. Its a type of commercial farming.
- In this, a single crop is grown over a large area. In its, a capital intensive methods of farming are used.
- The produce of this used as a raw material for various industries. In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, etc. are important plantation crops.
- Tea in Assam & North Bengal. Coffee in Karnataka is one of the examples of plantation crops.
Primitive Subsistence VS Intensive Subsistence Farming
Primitive subsistence farming:-
- This type of farming is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, digging stick, etc.
- Dependence on monsoon-like rain.
- Land productivity is very low because of no use of chemical fertilizer.
- This type of agriculture is practiced in the Northeastern state of India.
Intensive subsistence farming:-
- This type of farming is practiced on small patches of land with the help of modern tools & methods like a tractor, thresher, etc.
- Permanent means irrigation is used like tubewell.
- Land productivity is very high because of more use of chemical fertilizer.
- This type of agriculture is used in the Northern plain of India.
What is the cropping pattern?
- Its reforms to the proportion of area under different crops at a particular period of time.
- A change in cropping pattern means a change in the proportion of area under different crops.
- Three types of Cropping Pattern→ a. Rabi crop, b. Kharif crop, c. Zaid crop
Rabi crop patter
- These crop are grown from October to December and these crop are harvested in summer from April to June.
- Rainfall caused due to western temperate cycle help in success of these crops.
- These crop are grown in state like:- Punjab, Himachal Pradesh.
- Ex:- wheat, pea etc.
Kharif crop pattern 
- These crop are grown with the onset of monsoon.
- These crop are harvested is September and October.
- Monsoon rain is the main source of irrigation.
- Ex:- paddy, jowar etc.
Zaid crop pattern:-
- In between rabi & kharif season, there is short season during the summer month known as zaid season.
- Ex:- watermelon, muskmelon etc.
- It’s a staple food for the majority of the people of India.
- Our country is the 2nd largest producer of rice after China.
- Its a Kharif crop and require a high temperature (above 25C).
- It needs high humidity with annual rainfall above 100mm.
- It requires loamy & alluvial soil. The main state in- Bengal, U.P., Bihar, etc.
- In an area with low rainfall with help of irrigation, this crop is grown.
Commercial farming:- It’s done for profit-making. It’s practiced in large areas. This is capital intensive and modern technology is used in production ex:- wheat, rice, etc.
- Its second most important cereal crop.
- Its main food in the North & northern-western part of India.
- This crop requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
- It requires 50 to 75cm of annual rainfall.
- Ganga-Satluj plain in the northwest and the black-soil region of the Deccan are two important wheat-growing zones in India. Ex:- Punjab, U.P., etc.
- Jowar, bajra, and ragi are important millet grown in India.
- It’s known as coarse grain. They have very high nutritional value.
- Its a crop used both as food and fodder.
- Its a Kharif crop. It requires a temperature between 21C to 27C.
- It grows well in alluvial soil. Producing states are Karnataka, M.P., etc.
- India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulse in the world. These are the major source of protein.
- Crops are:- Urad, moong, etc. Pulse needs less moisture & can survive even in dry conditions.
- These are leguminous crops, all these crops help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
- So these crops are grown in rotation with other crops. Producing states are:- M.P., U.P., Maharashtra, etc.
Subsistence farming:- It’s done for self-consumption, not for profit. It’s practiced in a small area. This is labor-intensive and old technology is used for farming ex:- bajra, jowar, etc.
- It’s a tropical as well as subtropical crop. Sugarcane grows well in a hot and humid climate.
- It requires temperature 21oC to 27oC and annual rainfall between 75cm to 100cm and also Sugarcane grows as a variety of soil.
- It requires high manual labor from sowing to harvesting.
- India is the second-largest producer of sugarcane only after Brazil.
- The main thing that is made from its sugar, Gur, Khandsari, etc.
- Producing states are:- Tamil Nadu, U.P., etc.
- In 2008, India was the second-largest producer of groundnut in the world after China.
- In rapeseed production, India was the third-largest producer in the world after Canada & China in 2008.
- The main oilseed produced in India is:- groundnut, coconut, sunflower, etc.
- These are used in the manufacturing of soap, cosmetics, etc.
- Groundnut is a Kharif crop. Gujarat is the largest producer of groundnut in 2011-12.
- Its an example of plantation agriculture. Its a beverage crop, that is introduce by Britisher in India.
- The tea plant grows well in tropical as well as subtropical areas, fertile soil rich in humus and organic matter.
- It’s a labor-intensive industry. Tea bushes require a warm & moist free climate all through the year.
- It requires abundant, cheap, and skilled labor.
- Major tea-producing states are Assam, the hill of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri district and West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, etc.
- In 2008, India was the third-largest producer of tea after China & Turkey.
- Its a beverage crop and in 2008, India producer 3.2% of the world’s coffee production.
- Indian coffee is known as in the world for its best quality.
- The arabica variety introduced by Yemen first in the country.
- Initially, its cultivation was introduce on Baba Budan hills.
- Today’s cultivation is done on Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
- In 2008 India was the 2nd largest producer of fruit & vegetable in the world after China.
- India is a producer of tropical as well as temperature fruit.
- Mango of Maharashtra, A.P., U.P., etc. and orange of Nagpur & Cherrapunji, banana of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, etc.
- India producer about 13% of the world’s vegetables.
- Its an important producer of a pea, cauliflower, onion, tomato, etc.
- Its an equatorial crop and its also grown in tropical and subtropical areas.
- It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall more than 200cm and a temperature above 25C.
- It’s an important industrial raw material. Its mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Garo hill of Meghalaya.
- In 2010-11 India ranked fourth among the world’s natural rubber producers.
- Cotton, jute and natural silk are four major fiber crops grow in India Cotton, jute is derived from a crop grown in the soil.
- Silk is from cocoons of silkworm fed on green leave of mulberry and rearing of silk warm for the production of silk fiber is known as sericulture.
- India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant and cotton is one of the raw materials for cotton textiles.
- In 2008, India was 2nd largest producer of cotton after China.
- Cotton grows well in a drier part of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
- It requires high temperature, light rainfall, and bright sunshine for its growth. Its a Kharif crop and require 6 to 8 months to mature.
- The major cotton-producing states are- Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P., etc.
- Its also known as the golden fiber and it grows on well-drained fertile soil in the flood plain where the soil is renewed every year.
- High temperature is require during the time of growth.
- West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Meghalaya are major jute producing states.
- It’s use to make gunny bags, mats, carpet, etc. Due to its high cost, it’s losing its market due to synthetic fiber.
Describe the technical and Institutional reform occurred in India agriculture? (imp.)
Need for agrarian reform:-
- India is an agricultural economy for thousands of years.
- But without technical and institutional change the pace of agriculture development hindered.
- Nowadays permanent means of irrigation are develope but some farmers depend on rainfall yet.
- Agriculture provides a livelihood for more than 60% of its population, but its still face problem.
- To tackle the problem of India agriculture, the government has taken a circle of reform after independence these reforms are known as agrarian reform.
- Agrarian Reform are three types:-
1. Technical reform:-
- Use of chemical fertilizer.
- Use of HYV seeds.
- Mechanized mean of cultivation.
- Use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection.
2. Institutional reform:-
- Abolition of zamindari system.
- Regulation of rent.
- Cooperative farming, Consolidation of holiday.
3. General reform:-
- Provision of credit.
- Expansion of irrigation.
- Kisan credit card, Personal accident, insurance scheme, Price support policy.
- Mahatma Gandhi declared Vinoba Bhave as his spiritual heir.
- He was one of the votaries of Gandhi’s concept of gram swarajya.
- After Gandhiji martyrdom, Vinoba Bhave undertook padayatra to spread the Gandhiji message.
- One he was delivering a lecture at Pochampalli in Andhra Pradesh, some poor landless villagers demand some land for economic well being.
- Suddenly Shri Ram Chandra Reddy stood up and offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 landless villagers, this act was known as Bhoodan.
- Some zamindar owners of many villages offered to distribute some village among the landless, this was known as Gramdan.
- This Bhoodan Gramdan movement initiated by Vinoba Bhave is also known as Blood-less Revolution.
About- Agriculture class 10 notes
In Agriculture class 10 notes we cover so many topics like Agrarian Reform, Bhoodan-Gramdan, Millet, Rice Type of Farming and so many other topics. I hope you like Agriculture class 10 notes and if like then please give your valuable feedback how we improve Agriculture class 10 notes in the comment box(below).
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