Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2020]
Introduction:- In Democracy and Diversity Class 10 notes we talk about What is Democracy, Overlapping Social Difference, Black Movement and so many other topics we read in Democracy and Diversity class 10 notes. So let’s start it.
What is Democracy?
- Democracy is the form of government. And the leader is elected by the nation’s people.
- People have the right to vote and nobody pressurizes nation people to vote for a particular leader.
- In a democratic country, these points are the following- Free and Fair election, One Person, One Vote, One Value, Rule of Laws, and Respect for the Right of Citizens, The major Decisions are Taken by Elected Leaders.
What does the civil rights movement of USA signify that was led, Martin Luther?
- The civil rights movement was led by Martin Luther during the 1954-1968.
- It was a set of reforms and movements aligned at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African Americans.
- This movement practiced caused the non-violent method of civil disobedience against really discrimination laws and practices.
African American, Afro-American, or black American their word were the descendants of Americans.
Mexico – American Explain(V. imp)
- Two athlete rise of civil right in movement in Mexico Olympic.
- This accident happened in the medal ceremony of the 200 meter race in 1968, Olympic held at Mexico city.
- They were Tommie smith(gold medalist) and John Carlos(bronze medal). They received their medal without shoes which represent black poverty.
- The two men standing with clenched first appraised(black power), white the American national anthem was played.
- Peter Norman(silver medalist) an Australian were a human right badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to two Afro-American athlete.
- The medal of Carlos and Smith were taken back because the international Olympic association declared carbs.
- Smith guilty of violate the Olympic spirit by making political statement.
- Then they returned back to their country they faced a lot of criticism.
- Norman to suffered for him action and was not included in the Australia team for the next Olympic.
- But their action gained the international attention for the civil right movement in the U.S.A.
- In the San Jose state university their statue was installed in the university campus representing the protest by both.
“Every social difference does not lead to social division” Explain or justify it.
- Every social difference does not lead to social division.
- Because sometimes social difference divide similar people from another.
- But they also unite very different people.
- People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups.
- Example:- Carlos and Smith were similar in one way(both were African-American) and different from Norman who was white(Australian).
- But they were also all similar other ways- they were all-athlete who stood against racial discrimination.
Overlapping Social Difference
- It happens when some social difference overlaps with other difference.
- Under these people start feeling that they belong to different communities.
- These types of social differences create possibilities of deep social division.
- It leads toward the disunity & disintegration of the country.
- For example:- The difference between black & white in the U.S.A. is overlapping because the black tend to be poor, homeless, and discrimination.
- In our country, Dalit tends to be poor and landless and often face discrimination.
Cross-Cutting Social Difference
- Under this, a social difference crosscut another difference.
- Under this, the group can share a common interest-on one issue but are likely to be different on different issues.
- These are easier to accommodate(handle or control).
- Example:- In the Netherlands class and religion tend to cut a cross on catholic and protestant are equally likely to be poor and rich.
Cases of Netherlands & Northern Ireland
- It’s a country where the overlapping social difference.
- It’s a Christian country, the population is divided into catholic and protestant.
- Class and religion overlap with each other.
- Catholics are poor and suffered discrimination.
- The protestant is rich & make discrimination against Catholics.
- Hence the country leads toward disunity.
- Its a country where a social difference cross-cut each.
- Here the population is Christian and divided into catholic and protestant.
- How catholic and protestant are equally likely to be poor and rich.
- So any social difference is easy to accommodate.
“The combination of politics & social division is very dangerous and explosive”. Justify (imp.)
- The social combination of politics and social division is very dangerous and explosive.
- There are many political parties, it creates political competition among political parties.
- And this competition divides the country or society.
- If political parties start competing in terms of social division, it creates conflict & violence.
- Take the case of Northern Ireland this was a region of the United Kingdom and its population is divided into two major sections is Christianity & 53% of protestant and 44% of Roman catholic.
- The catholic was represented by the national parties, who demanded that Northern Ireland be unified with the Republic of Ireland as a catholic country.
- The protestants were represented by unionist parties who wanted to remain with the U.K. (a protestant country ).
- Hundred of civilian, militant, and security forces were killed in the fight between unionists and nationalists.
- It was only in 1998, that the U.K. government and the nationalist makes a peace treaty after which the later suspended their armed struggle.
- Political competition along religious ethnic life led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia divided into six independent countries.
“There factor is criminal in deciding the outcome of the politic of social division” Explain.
Three determinate which decide the outcome of politics of social division:-
1. People perception,
2. Raising of demand by political leaders,
3. The reaction of the government.
1. People perception:-
- If people see their identities in a singular and exclusive term, it will lead to social division & violence. Ex:- As long as people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only catholic or protestant their difference prevailed.
- It’s much easier. If people see that their identities are multiple and they think that they have the same national identity. Ex:- A majority of Belgian now feel that they were are Belgian first their language priority come after it. This feeling blinds them together.
2. Raising of demand by political leader:-
- If demand raised by the political leader is within the constitutional framework that is easy to accommodate. Ex:- The political leader of Belgium works within the constitutional framework. So, the disputes between Dutch and French-speaking was handled.
- It’s not easy to accommodate if the demand raised by a political leader is not within the constitutional framework and at the cost of another community. Ex:- The Sinhala leader of Sri Lanka wanted to fulfill their demand at the cost of other communities and this would let to the civilian war.
3. Reaction of government:-
- If the rules are writing to share power and accommodate the reason demand of minority communities, social division becomes less threatening for the country.
- But if they try to suppress such a demand with force and in the name of national unity, this can lead to civil war or division of the country ex- Sri Lanka.
In a democracy political expression of social division is very normal and can be healthy. Explain it.
- This allows the variously disadvantaged and marginal social group to express their grievance and get the govt. to attend which expresses them.
- If more marginal social groups participated in democracy.This lead to the strengthening of democracy.
- In certain case countries like India tries to accommodate social division by providing power to certain backward people like a reserved seat for S.C., S.T. or for O.B.C. 1/3rd seat are reserved for women at the local level.
Black Power Movement
- This movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975.
- It believed in violence and this movement hard no leader.
- This movement restored to violence to end racism.
- It was an unorganized more militant and anti-racist movement.
About- Democracy and Diversity class 10 notes
In Democracy and Diversity class 10 notes we cover so many topics like Democracy, the Black Movement, Overlapping in Social Difference, Cross-Cut Social Difference and so many other topics we cover in democracy and diversity class 10 notes. So I hope you like this notes, and if you like then please give your valuable feedback in the comment box(below).
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