Development Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2020]

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Development Class 10 Notes

Introduction:- In Development Class 10 Notes we cover so many topics like National Development, National income, Literacy & Birth rate, Conserve groundwater and so many other topics we read in Development Class 10 Notes. So let’s start it.

What is Development?

  • It’s a comprehensive term that includes an increase in real per capita income, improvements in the living standard of people, a reduction in poverty.
  • Three characteristics of development:-
    • Different people have different development goals.
    • For one people may be development, for another maybe not development or for others may be destructive.
    • Income is the most important component of development but along with income, people seek equal treatment, good health, peace, and literacy, etc.

Aspect of Development ➠

  1. Different people have different development goods.
  2. Development for one may not be development for other.
Development Class 10 Notes
Development Class 10 Notes

Why do different people have a different goal for development, Explain?

  • More wages mean development for a worker but it can go against the entrepreneur.
  • A rich farmer or trader wants to sell food grain at a higher price but a poor worker wants to purchase it for low prices.
  • Construction of a dam means more and cheap power but people who will lose their habitat will demonstrate.
  • To get more electricity the industrialist may want more dams but this may submerge the agricultural land and disrupt the liver of people.

Income and Other Goal

Development goal like:-

  1. Income
  2. Good standard of living
  3. Satisfaction
  4. Equal treatment
  5. Freedom
  6. Security
  7. Respect
  8. Implement opportunity

‘For development people look at mixed goals’ Explain?

  • Apart from income people looking for equal treatment.
  • People want freedom for growth and development.
  • People also want security.
  • The people want the respect of others.
  • People want equal political rights.
  • They may require environmental sustainability.

Important definition ➦

  1. Common goals:- There is some need which is common to all like income, freedom, equality, security, respect, and friendship, etc.
  2. Different goals:- Development or progress does not mean the same thing for every individual each individual has his own idea of development. For example-
    1. Development for a farmer may be better irrigation facilities.
    2. For unemployed youth, it may mean better employment opportunities, etc.
  3. Conflicting goals:- What may be developed for some may become destruction for some others. For example-
    1. Industrialists may want a dam for electricity.
    2. But such dams would displace the native of the region.

“Money cannot buy all goods and services that one needs to live well” Explain?

  • Money or material thing that one can buy with its one factor on which life depends but the quality of our life also depends upon non-material things like equal treatment, freedom, security, respect of other, etc.
  • Money cannot buy as a pollution-free environment unadulterated medicine peace etc.
  • There are many facilities like schools, colleges, hospitals which an individual cannot afford all there are provided by the government society.

What is the National development?

  • National development refers to the ability of a country to improve the social welfare of the people.
  • For example- by providing social amenities such as quality education, potable water, transportation infrastructure, and medical care.
National Development
National Development

Explain any five different basics of comparison of economic development of the different nations?

The development of a country can be generally be determined by per capita income, average literacy level, and health station of people.

  1. Per capita income:- It means the average income generated by each person in a given group of people.
  2. Literacy level:- Amount of literacy achieved is also a measure of development literacy rate measure above age. The more people are educated than the country grows more.
  3. Health status:- Health indicator is the infant mortality rate, birth rate, etc. lower the amount of infant mortality rate, the higher is the rate of people being healthy.
  4. Net attendance ratio:- Its also are an important indicator of the economic development of a nation. Its the attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.
  5. Life expectancy:- It denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth higher the life expectancy at birth, the higher is considered the development of the nation.

What are the main criteria used by the world bank in classifying countries? What is the limitation of the criteria?

The world development report 2013 brought out by the world bank has given the following criteria in classifying countries:- Per capita, income/average income(measured in dollars) is the main criteria used by the world bank to classify different countries as development or high-income countries and underdeveloped or low-income countries.

  1. Rich or high income countries:-
  • Countries with per capita income of $12616 U.S. per annum and above in 2012 are called rich countries(developed) high-income countries and per capita income of $12736 U.S. per annum and above in 2013.

2. Poor or low income countries:-

  • The countries with per capita income $1035 U.S. or less are called low-income countries and in 213 was $1045 U.S.
  • India comes in the categories of low middle-income countries because it’s per capita income in 2012 was just $1530 the U.S. per annum and in 2013 was just $1570 the U.S. per annum.


  1. National income:-
  • National income is estimated in the domestic currency of each country. This estimate is converted into a dollar at the current rate of exchange. Such conversion does not tell us anything about the purchasing power of each country.

2. Affected by the size of population:-

  • Per capita income is affected by the size of the population of a country. If a country has a large population it’s per capita income will be low despite having a large national income.
  • Similarly, a country having a smaller population will have a higher per capita income even if it does not have a large national income.
  • It covers only the economic aspect ignoring peace, health, environmental, education, etc.
  • The method does not provide us the distribution of income among poor and rich people.

Important definition ➦

  1. Infant mortality rate:- It indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year is a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.
  2. The life expectancy of birth:- This denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. It has a direct and positive relationship with the length states of a country or region.
  3. Literacy rate:- This measure the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group who have the ability of reading and write understand the higher literacy rate of a country improves its human development index.
  4. Per capita income(average income):- When the total national income a divided by the total population it is called per capita income. For calculating per capita income this formula use:-
National income
Per capita income = ————————
calculate per capita income

What are the public facilities? Why there is a need for public facilities?

  • Public facilities are provided by the government or any other organization for the common people.
  • Public facilities are the cheapest way to provide basic service collectivity.
  • Most of the poor people service only because of public facilities.
  • These facilities are important for maintaining law and order, clean line, quality of life, access, and comfort of common people.
  • There are many services like police, education, transportation, etc. which become affordable only if there part of public facilities.
  • Public Facilities are:-
    • School/college
    • Hospital
    • Public park
    • PDS system
    • Roadways/railways
    • Police/army service
    • Electricity
    • Low & order

Fact:- Money if your pocket cannot buy all the goods and service that you may need to live well(done on back).

Public Facilities
Public Facilities

What are the criteria to determine if an adult is undernourished?

  • Its criteria to determine if adults are undernourished is Body Mass Index popularly known as BMI.
  • If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished then a person is overweight.
  • In order to calculate if first the weight of the person in kilogram is taken.
  • Then we take the height in meters. The weight is divided by the square of the height.
BMI = ———————-
Height (m sq.)
calculate BMI

Human Development Report(HDI)

  • The criteria used by UNDP to measure the level of development of a country.
  • According to HDI, all countries are ranked.
  • It’s a comprehensive approach which covers all the major aspect of life.
  • Apart from income, education, health status, life, expectancy, etc. are considered for measuring the economic development of a nation.

Difference between UNDP & World Bank


  • UNDP(United Nations Development Programme) has taken education, health status, life expectancy, and other components as the base of development.
  • It’s a broad concept as it takes into account all the important development.
  • UNDP has ranked the different countries as of 1st, 2nd & 3rd.
  • A total of 177 countries India ranked as 136(2013).

World Bank:-

  • World Bank has taken per capita income as the base for economic development.
  • It’s a narrow concept as it takes into account only the per capita income as the base.
  • World Bank has divided the countries into law or high-income countries.
  • India comes under lower-middle-income countries in 2011.

Why has Kerala has low infant mortality rate?

Kerala ranks higher as compared to Punjab even with a lower per capita income because:-

  • It has an adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
  • The infant mortality rate is lower. The literacy rate is higher.
  • Net Attendance Ratio(total number of school attending children) is higher.
  • Per capita income is low here, component to Punjab but other points are better than Punjab so it ranked higher than Punjab.

Compare India & Sri Lanka on the basis of any three indicators of the Human Development Index for 2013?

  1. Per Capita Income:- The Per Capita Income of Sri Lanka is higher than that of India. The Per capita income of India is about $3285 whereas its around $5170 of Sri Lanka.
  2. Life expectancy at Birth:- Life expectancy at birth in Sri Lanka is also higher as compared to India. In Sri Lanka, the life expectancy is around 75.1 years were in India its 65.8 years.
  3. Literacy rate:- This rate is also higher in SriLanka than India it’s 91.2 in SriLanka and whereas 62.8 in India.
  4. India ranked in HDI:- 136 whereas Srilanka ranked in HDI 92.

Where is Sustainability development? Suggest any two ways in which resource can be used judiciary?

Sustainability of Development:- Sustainability of development refers to development without damaging the environment and without compromising with the needs of future generations or its a concept of durable development carried out by limiting the needs of the present so that the future generation may enjoy the benefit of nature to fullest.

  • Improvement of a better technique for the economical extraction of the resource.
  • Use of alternative sources of the resource.
  • Recycling of resources.
  • Less use of non-renewable resources.
  • Limiting or controlling the waste of material and energy at the production level.
  • It can groundwater is under serious threat.
  • About 300 districts have reported a water level decline of over 4 meters, during part 20years.
  • Nearly 1/3rd of the country is overusing their groundwater resource.
  • In another 25years 60% of the face the problem of water scarcity.
  • More use of groundwater is a Punjab, Western hard rock plateau area of Central and South India.
Ground Water
Ground Water

How to conserve ground water?

  • Groundwater is an example of renewable resources.
  • It’s a natural resource.
  • People living in an area with surplus water try to conserve it.
  • The effect should be made not to overuse it.
  • It should be done to degrade the quality of water by throwing garbage in the river or industrial waste material in the river.
  • If proper steps are not taken it will cause serious consequences.

Difference ➦

  1. Renewable:-
    1. A renewable resource is those which can be used again and again.
    2. This resource can be reproduced by physical, chemical & mechanical process. Ex- groundwater, solar & wind energy, etc.
  2. Non-renewable:-
    1. Their resource is used only for a limited time. These resources get exhausted after a year of use.
    2. These resources occur over a very long ecological time and take millions of years in their formation. Ex- crude oil, fossil fuel, etc.

Present country of crude oil


  • Middle East
  • U.S.A.
  • World

Reserve(million barrel)

  • 807.7
  • 35.0
  • 1668.9

No. of years reserve will last

  • 78.7
  • 10.7
  • 52.9
  • The reserve lasts only for 53years if there are extracted at the present rate.
  • In India, the stock of crude oil and coal would be out of stock in the next 43years.
  • There is a need to find out alternative energy resource which does not cause any damage to the environment & are long-lasting.

List a few examples of environmental degradation ➢

  1. Deforestation
  2. Soil erosion
  3. Ozone depletion
  4. Air & water pollution
  5. Burning of fossil fuel
  6. Lowering of water level

Consequence of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries . Explain?

Environmental is degraded through the depletion of a resource like air, water & soil. It leads to the destruction of the ecosystem and extinction of wildlife it’s now a global issue. Environmental degradation is not restricted to nation or state boundaries. Its consequence has been felt in surrounding states and the neighboring countries and something globally.

  • Pollution is one country that may affect the other in the form of acid rains, climate change.
  • Deforestation in some countries may disturb the rainfall pattern in the surrounding countries.
  • Land degradation and dam burst can bring massive siltation and flood-like situation.

I hope you like Development Class 10 Notes and also you can read the important questions for your CBSE board exam(above). And please share this article with your friends. And also you can comment below what you want to improve in this article. THANK YOU FOR READING DEVELOPMENT CLASS 10 NOTES

by ranjan mishra

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