Drainage Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 3 | Geography

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drainage class 9 notes

Introduction:- In Drainage class 9 notes we read about Drainage, Himalayan rivers VS Peninsular rivers, Importance of lakes & rivers, Ganga Action Plan(GAP) and so many other topics read in Drainage class 9 notes. So let’s start it.

What is Drainage?

  • It describes the river system of an area.
  • The area drained by a single river system is called a Drainage Basin.
  • Any elevated area such as mountains and upland which separates two drainage basins is called the Water Divide.

Fact:- Ambala is located on the water divide between it the Indus and the Ganga river system.

Drainage pattern

  • Drainage pattern:- It consists of a single mainstream(river) with tributaries resembling the branches of trees.
  • Trellis:- When tributaries join the mainstream at a right angle such a pattern is called trellis.
  • Radials:- In this pattern, the streams flow in a different direction from central peals or dome-like structure.
  • Rectangular:- It develops on a strongly joined rocky terrain.

Fact:- The world’s largest drainage basin formed by “the Amazon river”. India’s largest drainage basin formed by the river Ganga and Brahmaputra.

drainage class 9 notes
Drainage class 9 notes

The Drainage System in India(imp.)

Indian river are divided into two major river:-

  1. The Himalayan rivers
  • The Indus,
  • The Ganga,
  • The Brahmaputra.

2. The Peninsular rivers

  • Mahanadi,
  • Godavari,
  • Krishna,
  • Kaveri,
  • Narmada,
  • Tapi.

Himalayan VS Peninsular Rivers(imp.)

The Himalayan Rivers

  • These rivers originate from the glaciers and the area they cover is very large.
  • These rivers pass through George and deep valleys and these rivers are young.
  • They have high erosional activity and very useful for irrigation.
  • These rivers are perennial e.g. they flow throughout the year.
  • The Himalayan rivers are:-
    ➢ Ganga river,
    ➢ Indus river,
    ➢ And Brahmaputra river.
  • Its water comes from snow melted and rain(flow whole year).

The Peninsular Rivers

  • Their rivers originate from the plateau and the area they cover is very small.
  • These rivers pass through the board and shallow valleys.
  • These rivers acquired maturity and they have very little erosional activity.
  • These are less or little use of irrigation.
  • These rivers are not perennial these are called seasonal rivers.
  • The peninsular river are:-
    ➢ Narmada river,
    ➢ Tapi river,
    ➢ Mahanadi river,
    ➢ Godavari river,
    ➢ Krishan river,
    ➢ And Kaveri river.
  • It got water from rain only(seasonal rivers).

Distributory:- It is originated from the main rivers. It is formed near the river mouth. It is found in the lower course of the river.

What is Meander?

  • It is a lead form that is developed by rivers in the middle course river flows in such a manner in which it makes loops and curves.
  • A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourses

The Himalayan rivers:-

Feature of Himalayan rivers:-

  • The Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra are the major Himalayan river.
  •  The Himalayan river is greater in size, it’s not seasonal and very fertile river(carry rich sediment).
  • A tributary is that river that joins the main river and increases the volume of the water.

The Indus River System

  • It originates in Tibet near Mansarovo lake.
  • It enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir(moving west).
  • It’s tributaries in Kashmir region:-
    ➢ The Zaskar,
    ➢ The Nubra,
    ➢ The Shyok,
    ➢ The Hunza.
  • It emerges from the mountain at the attack.
  • The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum join together to enter Indus at Mithankot in Pakistan.
  • Beyond this, it flows southward and drains into the Arabian sea flows from east to Karachi and it’s length 2900kilometer.
  • Its 1/3rd area basin is located in India(state- Punjab, Haryana, Himanchal Pradesh).
  • Only 20% of the water of Indus rivers is used by India according to the Indus water treaty(1960).
class 9 geography chapter 3 notes
Ganga river system

The Ganga River System(imp.)

  • The headwater of Ganga is called ‘Bhagirathi’ and it arises from Gangotri glaciers.
  • It joined by Alakhnada at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.
  • At Haridwar, it emerges from the mountain on to the plain.
  • Tributaries:-
    ➢ The Ganga
    ➢ The Ghagra
    ➢ The Kosi
  • Penisular tributaries:-
    ➢ The Chambal
    ➢ The Son
    ➢ The Betwa
  • The rivers the Yamuna rises from the Yomuntari glacier.
  • It flows parallel to Ganga and meets Ganga at Allahabad.
  • The Ghaghara, the Gondak, and Kosi arise from Nepal Himalayas.
  • The Ganga flows eastward hills Farakha in West Bengal.
  • Here the distributors are Bhagirathi and Hoogly.
  • From here on it moves south and meets the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh.
  • Further downstream is known as ‘MEGHNA‘.
  • Delta formed by them- Sunderban Delta(it is the largest delta in the world).
  • Its length is 2500 kilometers and drains into the Bay of Bengal.

The Brahmaputra river system(imp.)

  • It rises in Tibet, east of Mansarovar lake, and it’s slightly longer then Indus.
  • It’s most course lies outside India and flows eastward parallel to the Himalayas.
  • On reaching Namacha Barwa(height 7757m), this lake U-turn.
  • Here it enters India in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Here, it makes a deep George called Dihang George.
  • Tributaries- The Dihang, The Lohit.
  • It is known as:-
    ➢ Tsang-pa-in Tibet(China)
    ➢ The Brahmaputra – in India
    ➢ Jamuna- in Bangladesh
  • It carries:-
    ➢ Less amount of water and silt in Tibet because of low rainfall.
    ➢ More amount of water and silt in India due to heavy rainfall.
  • It formed a riverine island- Majuli(world laargest)
  • It drained into the Bay of Bengal.

George:- A deep narrow opening formed by the rivers in the upper course. Its length is high and width small.


The Peninsular river

Feature of Peninsular river:-

  • It arises into the western ghat, smaller in size and it’s Seasonal.
  • Less fertile than Himalayas river and River are:- Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri

The Narmada River(imp.)

  • It rise in the Amarkantak hills of M.P.
  • It flows toward the west through a rift valley and the rift valley is formed due to faulting.
  • Some beautiful location of Narmada river are:-
    ➢ Marble rocks wear Jabalpur(here it flow through a deep George)
    ➢ Dhuadhar falls, where river plug over steep rocken.
  • It’s tributaries join it at the right angle.
  • Area covered- Madhya Pradesh & Gujarat.
drainage class 9 notes
Narmada river

The Tapi Basin

  • It rises in Satpura ranges in the Betul district of M.P.
  • And it flows through a rift valley parallel to the Narmada river.
  • It is shorter in length in comparison to the Narmada river.
  • Area covered- M.P., Gujarat & Maharashtra

The Godavari Basin(imp.)

  • It is the largest peninsular river and also known as ‘Dakshin Ganga’.
  • It rises on the slopes of western Ghat in the Nasik district of Maharashtra.
  • The total length is 1500kilometer and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
  • It is a 50% basin area lies in Maharashtra.
  • It covers area- Maharashtra, M.P., Odisha, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Tributories- The purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga, Penganga.

The Mahanadi Basin

  • It rises in the highland of Chattisgarh.
  • It flows through Odisha to reach the Bay of Bengal.
  • Length is 860kilometer and area covered- Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha.

The Krishna Basin

  • It rises from a spring near Mahableshwar.
  • The total length is 1400kilomter and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
  • It tributories- The Tungabhadra, Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi, Bhima.
  • Area covered- Maharashtra, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh.

Lagoons:- A lake of salt water that is separated from the sea by sand or rock.

The Kaveri Basin

  • It lies in the Brahmagri range of western ghat.
  • It drains into the Bay of Bengal in the south of Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu.
  • Total length is 760kilometer and area covered- Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala.
  • Tributaries- Amravati, Bhavani, Heimavati & Kabini.

What is Lakes?

A body of water lying on the hollow on earth’s surface and being entirely surrounded by land is known as a lake.

Formation of lakes:-

  1. By the action of glaciers, ice sheet,
  2. By the wind,
  3. By river action,
  4. By human activities,
  5. Due to tectonic plates activity.
class 9 geography chapter 3 notes
Lakes

Classification of Lakes:-

1. Freshwater lakes(natural lake):-

  • Mostly found in the Himalayas region.
  • They are of glaciers origin and water-filled in it by snowmelt or rain.
  • These are permanent in nature.
  • The Wular lake in Jammu & Kashmir is the result of tectonic activity.
  • The Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani are fresh water lake.

2. Salt water lake(natural lake):-

  • Spits and bars form lagoons in the coastal area.
  • Chilika lake, the Pulicat lake, the Kolleru lake are the saltwater lake.
  • Lakes inland drainage are saltwater lake e.g. Sambhar lake, in Rajasthan.
  • Its water is used to produce salt.

3. Artificial Lake:-

  • Lakes which are made by a human is called Artificial lake.
  • The damming of the river for the generation of electricity had led to the formation of such a lake.
  • Guru Gobind sugar lake(Bhakra Nangal project).

4. OX-bow-lakes(natural lake):-

  • A meandering river across a flood plain form cut-offs that later develop into ox-bow-lakes.
Importance of Lakes:-
  • It regulates the flow of a river.
  • During heavy rainfall it prevents flooding.
  • It helps to generate electricity and it moderates the climate and maintains the aquatic ecosystem.
  • It enhances natural beauty and develops tourism and provides recreation.

What is River?

  • A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake, or another river.
  • In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water

Importance of River:-

  • Water is life and it is essential for many human activities like drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, etc.
  • It helps in irrigation and navigation and also helps in generating electricity by making a dam on the river.
  • It moderates the climate provides recreation and moderate the climate.
  • They make the soil fertile.

River Pollution(causes)

  • Harmful chemicals discharged by the industries are being thrown into.
  • Excessive use of chemical fertilizers also polluting the river.
  • Domestic and municipal sewage containing harmful chemicals discharged into rivers.
  • Overutilization of water is also a threat to humanity.

The harmful effect of pollution

  • It leads to disease and soil erosion.
  • It destroys the aquatic ecosystem.
  • It degrades the land.
  • It makes a shortage of water for use.

National River Conservation Plan(NRCP)

a. Ganga Action Plan(GAP)(imp.):-

  1. Phase:- It started in 1985 closed on 31st March 2000. The committee of (NRCP) checkout the progress.
    • And necessary corrective action is taken for its successful implementation. The motive of this plan was to stop polluting the water of major rivers.
  2. Phase:- The GAP has merged with NRCP. The NRCP covers 152 towns(27 interstate, 16state).
    • Total schemes 215. 69 schemes are completed. The aim is to stop polluting the major river.

About- Drainage class 9 notes

In Drainage class 9 notes we read about Drainage, Himalayan rivers VS Peninsular rivers, Ganga Action Plan, Importance of Lakes & River and so many other topics we read in this and trust me if you read Drainage class 9 notes then you do not need to read other blogs and even not need to read your copy or book. So read Drainage class 9 notes completely. Give your feedback in the comment box(below).

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