Drainage Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 3 | Geography
Introduction:- In Drainage class 9 notes we read about Drainage, Himalayan rivers VS Peninsular rivers, Importance of lakes & rivers, Ganga Action Plan(GAP) and so many other topics read in Drainage class 9 notes. So let’s start it.
What is Drainage?
- It describes the river system of an area.
- The area drained by a single river system is called a Drainage Basin.
- Any elevated area such as mountains and upland which separates two drainage basins is called the Water Divide.
Fact:- Ambala is located on the water divide between it the Indus and the Ganga river system.
- Drainage pattern:- It consists of a single mainstream(river) with tributaries resembling the branches of trees.
- Trellis:- When tributaries join the mainstream at a right angle such a pattern is called trellis.
- Radials:- In this pattern, the streams flow in a different direction from central peals or dome-like structure.
- Rectangular:- It develops on a strongly joined rocky terrain.
Fact:- The world’s largest drainage basin formed by “the Amazon river”. India’s largest drainage basin formed by the river Ganga and Brahmaputra.
The Drainage System in India(imp.)
Indian river are divided into two major river:-
- The Himalayan rivers
- The Indus,
- The Ganga,
- The Brahmaputra.
2. The Peninsular rivers
Himalayan VS Peninsular Rivers(imp.)
The Himalayan Rivers
- These rivers originate from the glaciers and the area they cover is very large.
- These rivers pass through George and deep valleys and these rivers are young.
- They have high erosional activity and very useful for irrigation.
- These rivers are perennial e.g. they flow throughout the year.
- The Himalayan rivers are:-
➢ Ganga river,
➢ Indus river,
➢ And Brahmaputra river.
- Its water comes from snow melted and rain(flow whole year).
The Peninsular Rivers
- Their rivers originate from the plateau and the area they cover is very small.
- These rivers pass through the board and shallow valleys.
- These rivers acquired maturity and they have very little erosional activity.
- These are less or little use of irrigation.
- These rivers are not perennial these are called seasonal rivers.
- The peninsular river are:-
➢ Narmada river,
➢ Tapi river,
➢ Mahanadi river,
➢ Godavari river,
➢ Krishan river,
➢ And Kaveri river.
- It got water from rain only(seasonal rivers).
Distributory:- It is originated from the main rivers. It is formed near the river mouth. It is found in the lower course of the river.
What is Meander?
- It is a lead form that is developed by rivers in the middle course river flows in such a manner in which it makes loops and curves.
- A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourses
The Himalayan rivers:-
Feature of Himalayan rivers:-
- The Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra are the major Himalayan river.
- The Himalayan river is greater in size, it’s not seasonal and very fertile river(carry rich sediment).
- A tributary is that river that joins the main river and increases the volume of the water.
The Indus River System
- It originates in Tibet near Mansarovo lake.
- It enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir(moving west).
- It’s tributaries in Kashmir region:-
➢ The Zaskar,
➢ The Nubra,
➢ The Shyok,
➢ The Hunza.
- It emerges from the mountain at the attack.
- The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum join together to enter Indus at Mithankot in Pakistan.
- Beyond this, it flows southward and drains into the Arabian sea flows from east to Karachi and it’s length 2900kilometer.
- Its 1/3rd area basin is located in India(state- Punjab, Haryana, Himanchal Pradesh).
- Only 20% of the water of Indus rivers is used by India according to the Indus water treaty(1960).
The Ganga River System(imp.)
- The headwater of Ganga is called ‘Bhagirathi’ and it arises from Gangotri glaciers.
- It joined by Alakhnada at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.
- At Haridwar, it emerges from the mountain on to the plain.
➢ The Ganga
➢ The Ghagra
➢ The Kosi
- Penisular tributaries:-
➢ The Chambal
➢ The Son
➢ The Betwa
- The rivers the Yamuna rises from the Yomuntari glacier.
- It flows parallel to Ganga and meets Ganga at Allahabad.
- The Ghaghara, the Gondak, and Kosi arise from Nepal Himalayas.
- The Ganga flows eastward hills Farakha in West Bengal.
- Here the distributors are Bhagirathi and Hoogly.
- From here on it moves south and meets the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh.
- Further downstream is known as ‘MEGHNA‘.
- Delta formed by them- Sunderban Delta(it is the largest delta in the world).
- Its length is 2500 kilometers and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
The Brahmaputra river system(imp.)
- It rises in Tibet, east of Mansarovar lake, and it’s slightly longer then Indus.
- It’s most course lies outside India and flows eastward parallel to the Himalayas.
- On reaching Namacha Barwa(height 7757m), this lake U-turn.
- Here it enters India in Arunachal Pradesh.
- Here, it makes a deep George called Dihang George.
- Tributaries- The Dihang, The Lohit.
- It is known as:-
➢ Tsang-pa-in Tibet(China)
➢ The Brahmaputra – in India
➢ Jamuna- in Bangladesh
- It carries:-
➢ Less amount of water and silt in Tibet because of low rainfall.
➢ More amount of water and silt in India due to heavy rainfall.
- It formed a riverine island- Majuli(world laargest)
- It drained into the Bay of Bengal.
George:- A deep narrow opening formed by the rivers in the upper course. Its length is high and width small.
The Peninsular river
Feature of Peninsular river:-
- It arises into the western ghat, smaller in size and it’s Seasonal.
- Less fertile than Himalayas river and River are:- Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri
The Narmada River(imp.)
- It rise in the Amarkantak hills of M.P.
- It flows toward the west through a rift valley and the rift valley is formed due to faulting.
- Some beautiful location of Narmada river are:-
➢ Marble rocks wear Jabalpur(here it flow through a deep George)
➢ Dhuadhar falls, where river plug over steep rocken.
- It’s tributaries join it at the right angle.
- Area covered- Madhya Pradesh & Gujarat.
The Tapi Basin
- It rises in Satpura ranges in the Betul district of M.P.
- And it flows through a rift valley parallel to the Narmada river.
- It is shorter in length in comparison to the Narmada river.
- Area covered- M.P., Gujarat & Maharashtra
The Godavari Basin(imp.)
- It is the largest peninsular river and also known as ‘Dakshin Ganga’.
- It rises on the slopes of western Ghat in the Nasik district of Maharashtra.
- The total length is 1500kilometer and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
- It is a 50% basin area lies in Maharashtra.
- It covers area- Maharashtra, M.P., Odisha, Andhra Pradesh.
- Tributories- The purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga, Penganga.
The Mahanadi Basin
- It rises in the highland of Chattisgarh.
- It flows through Odisha to reach the Bay of Bengal.
- Length is 860kilometer and area covered- Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha.
The Krishna Basin
- It rises from a spring near Mahableshwar.
- The total length is 1400kilomter and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
- It tributories- The Tungabhadra, Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi, Bhima.
- Area covered- Maharashtra, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh.
Lagoons:- A lake of salt water that is separated from the sea by sand or rock.
The Kaveri Basin
- It lies in the Brahmagri range of western ghat.
- It drains into the Bay of Bengal in the south of Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu.
- Total length is 760kilometer and area covered- Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala.
- Tributaries- Amravati, Bhavani, Heimavati & Kabini.
What is Lakes?
A body of water lying on the hollow on earth’s surface and being entirely surrounded by land is known as a lake.
Formation of lakes:-
- By the action of glaciers, ice sheet,
- By the wind,
- By river action,
- By human activities,
- Due to tectonic plates activity.
Classification of Lakes:-
1. Freshwater lakes(natural lake):-
- Mostly found in the Himalayas region.
- They are of glaciers origin and water-filled in it by snowmelt or rain.
- These are permanent in nature.
- The Wular lake in Jammu & Kashmir is the result of tectonic activity.
- The Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani are fresh water lake.
2. Salt water lake(natural lake):-
- Spits and bars form lagoons in the coastal area.
- Chilika lake, the Pulicat lake, the Kolleru lake are the saltwater lake.
- Lakes inland drainage are saltwater lake e.g. Sambhar lake, in Rajasthan.
- Its water is used to produce salt.
3. Artificial Lake:-
- Lakes which are made by a human is called Artificial lake.
- The damming of the river for the generation of electricity had led to the formation of such a lake.
- Guru Gobind sugar lake(Bhakra Nangal project).
4. OX-bow-lakes(natural lake):-
- A meandering river across a flood plain form cut-offs that later develop into ox-bow-lakes.
Importance of Lakes:-
- It regulates the flow of a river.
- During heavy rainfall it prevents flooding.
- It helps to generate electricity and it moderates the climate and maintains the aquatic ecosystem.
- It enhances natural beauty and develops tourism and provides recreation.
What is River?
- A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake, or another river.
- In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water
Importance of River:-
- Water is life and it is essential for many human activities like drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, etc.
- It helps in irrigation and navigation and also helps in generating electricity by making a dam on the river.
- It moderates the climate provides recreation and moderate the climate.
- They make the soil fertile.
- Harmful chemicals discharged by the industries are being thrown into.
- Excessive use of chemical fertilizers also polluting the river.
- Domestic and municipal sewage containing harmful chemicals discharged into rivers.
- Overutilization of water is also a threat to humanity.
The harmful effect of pollution
- It leads to disease and soil erosion.
- It destroys the aquatic ecosystem.
- It degrades the land.
- It makes a shortage of water for use.
National River Conservation Plan(NRCP)
a. Ganga Action Plan(GAP)(imp.):-
- Phase:- It started in 1985 closed on 31st March 2000. The committee of (NRCP) checkout the progress.
- And necessary corrective action is taken for its successful implementation. The motive of this plan was to stop polluting the water of major rivers.
- Phase:- The GAP has merged with NRCP. The NRCP covers 152 towns(27 interstate, 16state).
- Total schemes 215. 69 schemes are completed. The aim is to stop polluting the major river.
About- Drainage class 9 notes
In Drainage class 9 notes we read about Drainage, Himalayan rivers VS Peninsular rivers, Ganga Action Plan, Importance of Lakes & River and so many other topics we read in this and trust me if you read Drainage class 9 notes then you do not need to read other blogs and even not need to read your copy or book. So read Drainage class 9 notes completely. Give your feedback in the comment box(below).
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