Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 3 | Civics
Introduction:- In Electoral Politics class 9 notes we talk about so many topics like what is election, why election we need, political competition is good or bad for election, election system in India and so many other topics we talk in this notes. So let’s start Electoral politics class 9 notes.
What is Election?
The election is a procedure held in a democratic country and people choose their leader for a specific period of time and after a regular interval time, people have the option to change their leader if they are not satisfied with the leader.
Process(procedure) of election:- To know this how the election is held in Haryana. Let’s move to Haryana.
Describe the state assembly election in Haryana?
- The state had been rule by Congress party form 1982 to 1987.
- It was time for the next assembly election in 1987.
- A new leader ‘Chaudhary Devi Lal’ led a movement called Naya Yudh(struggle for justice).
- He formed a new party(Lok dal).
- In his election campaign be say that if his party won the election his government world has the law of small farmer and businessman.
- The people were unhappy with the Congress government.
- They were attract by the devil’s promise.
- When the election of state assembly held in 1987 in Haryana this party won the election but when election result was announce after three days the chief minister becomes for the state.
- The government take the first step and was the loan of farmer and business.
- But in 1991, state assembly election his party lose the election.
- In 1991, congress again formed the government.
Why we need Election?
- We need an election to choose the best leader.
- We do it because the elected government make the best law of the country.
- The elected leader in the form of the government.
- To make better policies for the benefit of the citizen.
- The elected government can take major decisions.
- The elected government can run the country in a better way.
- Not suppress minority by making law and rule only for the majority for taking their votes in the election.
What makes election Democratic?
- Every adult citizen has the right to vote and every vote has equal value.
- There are two or more than two parties that consist of the election.
- The election must be need at regular intervals.
- Candidates should be elect by people.
- The election should be conduct in a free and fair manner.
- Not use money, power and not suppress voters for taking their votes in the election.
- And also elected leaders not have any F.I.R. & criminal cases in the past.
Is it good to have political competition? (imp.)
To answer this question, we need to discuss about merits and demerits of this political competition.
Merits of political competition:-
- Every political leader wants to advance their career they do it only when they serve the people to make better policies for them and fulfill the need of people they get elected in the next election.
- If they do not serve their country or obey their duties their citizen can punish them by electing in the next election.
a. General election:- Election is held in all constitutions at the same time either on the same day a within few days.
b. By-election:- Election held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member.
c. Constituency:- Voter is a geographical area who elect representative to the legislative bodies.
Demerits of the political competition:-
- Political competition creates disunity among citizen.
- Some times votes are elected on the basis of religion.
- Political parts do not formulate their long term in this area.
- Some good leader does not want to dirty tricks to win the election like:-
a. Distribute money
b. Distribute liqueur
c. Thereat to opposite candidate
d. Pressure the voter
e. Shift the polling booths.
What is our system of election in India?
- An election is held every five years. The election was held in all consistency on the same day or in a few days and this is known as the general election. The election is held in three-level in India:-
- At Center level(for Lok Sabha)
- At the State level(for Vidhan Sabha or Legislative assembly)
- And the Lower level(for Panchayati Raj)
1. At center level
- There are two houses of parliament Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
- Its upper house of the parliament.
- It has a total of 250 members but at that movement 245.
- Slightly for member age in 30 years.
- Tenure 6 years for every member but 1/3rd member are retired after every 2 years.
- Its a parliament body(not dissolved) members are not directly elected by citizens.
- 12 members are elected by president from the field of sports, literature, science, and arts.
- The rest of the members are elected by MLA of different states.
- -Its lower house of parliament.
- -It has 532 members but at that movement 543 are there.
- -Eighty for member age in 25 years.
- -The inverse of every member in 5 years.
- -It’s dissolved after every five years.
- -Members are directly elected by citizens of the country.
- -Elected members are called MP’s(Member of Parliament’s).
2. At state level
- At the State level, we have two houses of Vidhan Mandal every state has one Vidhan Mandal(government are form by Vidhan Sabha(Legislative Assembly)).
Legislative council(Vidhan Parishad):-
- Its the upper house.
- Every state has not this but the state has this U.P., Bihar, J&K, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka.
- Its member is not directly elected citizens.
- Composition of the council is:-
a. 1/3rd member are elected from MLA‘s.
b. 1/3rd member is elected from the local list.
c. 1/12th members are elected from the teacher.
d. 1/12th members are elected from registered graduates.
e. 1/6th members are selected from the field of art, literature, sports, etc.
- Maximum age of the member is 30 years.
- It member are called MLC(Member of Legislative Council).
Legislative assembly(Vidhan Sabha):-
- Its lower house.
- Every state has this house.
- It’s members are directly elected citizens.
- Age needed for every member is 25 years.
- Its member is called MLA(Member of Legislative Assembly).
3. At lower level
- At local level elections are held at two-level ➦
➢ For urban areas
➢ For rural areas
➢ For Urban areas:-
- It’s suggest in the 74th amendment of the constitution in 1992.
- It was implement in 1993.
- Its also divided in three-level ➦
➢ 1s is Nagar Panchayat
➢ 2nd Municipal Council
➢ 3rd Municipal corporation
1st Nagar Panchayat
- It’s for nearly transferred area village town.
- Near about 20,000 population. Direct election for it.
- Head is known as Chairperson.
2nd Municipal council
- Its small-town having 20,000 to 1,00,000 population.
- Direct election held for it.
- Head is called Chairperson
3rd Municipal Co-poration
- It’s for the big city has a population of more than 1,00,000.
- Directly are held for it.
- Head is Mayor.
➢ For Rural areas:-
- Its called Panchayati raj.
- It was implement in 1993.
- It divided three-level
1st is Village Level(Head Pardhan)
2nd is Block Level(Block Parmukh)
3rd is District Level(Chairman)
1st Village Level
- The head is called Pardhan, Panch or Sarpanch. He is elected by Gram Sabha
- Gram Sabha consist people of the 18 year old or 18+(voters.
- Their tenure is 5 years. And it is the lowest level of election.
2nd Block Level
- It is the 2nd level of election under panchayati Raj.
- Block Samiti consist of 2 to 60 villages depending on aread and its population(avaerage population needed 80,000).
- There are 25-26 member in Block Samiti(elected by Pradhans). Head is called ‘Pramukh’.
3rd District Level
- The electiont at District level is called Zila Parishad. The head is called Chairman.
- All the Block Samiti in a district together and form the Zila Parishad.
- Most of Zila Parishad are elected member of the Lok Sabha and MLA’s of that district.
Fact:- At the local level constitutional is known as seats or word.
Ques:- What do you mean by the Reserved Constitution? (imp.)
- Our constitution entities that every has the right to vote or have the right to be elected as a representative but in our country, some weaker groups are not enough resources to participate in education.
- So some seats are reserve for weaker sections like SC, ST, OBC, and also for women the seat is called ‘Reserve Constituencies’.
- In Lok Sabha, 84 seats are reserve for SC and 47 seats reserve for ST in the Lok Sabha election(1 September 2012).
- In the lower-level election, 1/3rd seat is reserve for women.
What is Voter List? (imp.)
- A person’s name that not listed in the voter list then he/she cannot eligible for voting but the person who crosses the age of 18 years or more than 19 years is eligible to cast their vote in the election.
- It’s officially called electoral and its main aim is that everyone has the right to vote.
- Its the responsibility of the government that to make that list up to data mean.
- The person who attains the age of 18 their names are add.
- The person who did their name is select from the list.
- This will be done every five years.
- A new system is introduce to the EPTC( Election Photo Identity Card).
- This car is not compulsory to get now.
- The person can bring their ration card Adhar card or driving license at the time polling.
Nomination of the Candidates
Who can contest the election?
- In India, everybody has the right to contest the election.
- The person who is voter can also contest the election but the only difference is that his minimum age require is 25 years.
- A person of unsound mind and criminal(extreme cases) are not allow to contest the election.
- Sometimes political parties nominate their candidates the party nomination is called ‘party ticket’.
What Procedure(process) to Contest Election?
- A candidate needs to fill a nomination form.
- The name to give some money as ‘security deposit’.
- A new system was introduce by the Supreme Court called a ‘legal declaration’ this legal declaration include the following details:-
a. Details of assets and liability of candidates and his family.
b. Details of serious crimes of candidates.
c. Educational qualification of candidates.
d. This information clear public mind, so that the public chooses the best representative.
It educational qualification is compulsory for candidates in the election? (imp.)
- No, educational qualification is not compulsory for candidates.
- Because more important is that how a candidate is able to secure a country most of the people in India are not highly educated(B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc) the people are not able to contest election it is the again the spirit of democrac
What is Election Campaign?
- Every political party wants to show the people who will from better government.
- They need on open and free discussion.
- During the election campaign, political party address election meeting.
- Leaders personally contact the voters.
- They talk about his policies in newspapers, radio, and T.V.
- Time period for election campaign in two weeks.
- But most of the political starts this campaign mount before they actually state.
Slogans used in elections by different political parties.
- Garibi Hatao(remove poverty) ➠ Indra Gandhi gave the slogan(congress party) in the Lok Sabha election 1971.
- Save democracy ➠ This slogan is given by the Janta Party in the Lok Sabha election 1977.
- Land to the tellers ➠ This slogan is given by the left front party West Bengal assembly election 1977.
- Protect the self-respect of the Telugu’s ➠ This slogan was given by N.T. Rama Rose party Telugu Dishan party CAP Andhra Pradesh assembly election in 1983.
Code of Conduct for the Election Campaign?
- No party can bride to the voters and no use of government resources for the election campaign.
- A party cannot spend more than 25 lakh in the Lok Sabha election.
- No party will use the worship places like masjid, Mandir for propaganda.
- Aircraft, officers, or any government resource cannot use by any party or present government in the election.
- Once election date declared then any project did not take or any big decision did not take for public facilities by the ruling party.
What is Polling Booth?
- Its final stages of the election.
- Its the day when voters castor par their votes.
- This day is called election day every person who’s name is mention in voter list cast the vote.
- The(voters) go to the nearby polling booth it may but primary school or government office.
- Voters go inside the beath, show their identity card the official put a mark on their finger, and allow them to cast their vote.
- An agent of each candidate sit inside to look that election held in a free and fairway.
- Election the voter used a ballet paper using a stamp to cast their vote.
- Now a day EVM(Election Voting Machine) is use for voting.
- The EVM shows the number of each candidate and their party’s symbols.
- The voter press the button of the party symbols to whom they want to given vote as the polling is over the EVM seated and take it at serve places.
How votes are Count?
- One fix date is declare for the country.
- All EVM’s for the constituency are open and vote is count.
- The agents of all candidates are present there to ensure that the counting is done poverty.
- The candidates who serve the highest number of voters from the constituency is declare elected.
- In general election counting of the voter in all constituencies done at the same time on the same day.
- To radio and newspaper announce the votes it became clear that who will form the next government.
What makes election democratic in India?
- Election in India conducted by the independent election commission
- People’s participation is increase in the poor increase.
- Election outcomes(result) are accept by all parties.
Explain Independent Election Commission?
- Election is conduct in India by the Election Commission of India(ECI).
- Its an independent body.
- Its head is Chief Election Commission(CEC) and he is appoint by President of India.
- Once he is appoint by President he is not answerable to any government or President.
- It an impossible to remove CEC.
- In India election commission has wide-ranging powers.
What is Power of C.E.C.? (imp.)
- CEC(Chief Election Commissioner) talk decision on every aspect of code of conduct of the election.
- It controls the election from the announcement of election to the declaration of the result.
- If any party violates the code of conduct CEC punisher the candidates.
- CEC can order the government to follows some guidelines not to use government vehicles during the election.
- On election duty every government officer work under CEC not under the control of the government.
- If CEC found that election is not conduct in a free and fair manner than they re-announce the election.
What is Popular Participation
- In India people participate in elections with every enthusiasm and if election held in a free and fair manner that people participate in the election.
- If the election does not conduct in a free or fair manner then people are not interested in the election.
- If we look at people participated in the election, it increased especially poor participation.
- But in the U.K. and the U.S.A. poor are not interested in election only richer section to participate in the election.
Acceptance of Election Outcomes
- The outcome of the India election speaks in itself.
- The ruling parties lose the election in every two out of three elections in lost 15 years.
- In India about half of the sitting MP or MLA lose the election.
- The candidates who spent more money and known for his criminal activities in some election lose the election.
- Election outcomes are mostly accept by the defeated parties.
- It shows that election held in a democratic manner in India.
Challenges face to Conduct Free & Fair Election
- Many candidates and big parties spent more money during election so small candidates suffered by it.
- Candidate with criminal connection get party ticket and win the election.
- Some times tickets are distribute to family members.
- Smaller parties suffer more in comparison to big parties because these parties have power & money.
- Some time two big parties make some policies so the ordinary citizen is offer ‘a little choice’.
About- Electoral Politics class 9 notes
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