Federalism Class 10 Notes | Political Science | CBSE Civics
Introduction:- In Federalism class 10 notes we talk about what is federalism, Union, State and Local government, Language policy, central-state relation and so many other topics we read in Federalism class 10 notes. So let’s start it.
What is Federalism?
- Federalism is a system of government in which power is divide between a central authority and its various constituent units(state or local government).
- The various constituent units(state, local & central government) run their administration independence and do not interface unnecessarily in the affair of another.
Key Feature of Federalism
- There is two or more than two-level(tier) of the government.
- Each tier governs the same city but each tier has its own jurisdiction(legislative, taxation, administrative).
- The jurisdiction of each tier of government is specified in the constitution.
- One level of the government can not unilaterally change the fundamental provision of the constitution any type of change in the fundamental provision of the constitution requires the consent of both levels of government.
- If any dispute arises between different level of government for their power then the supreme court act as an umpire.
- The Source of revenue is specified in the constituent for each tier of the government.
- The dual objective of a federal system→ 1. Promote unity in the country, 2. Accommodate regional diversity.
Unitary Government VS Federal Government
- In unitary govt. the central government has all the power.
- Under it, the central govt decides what power to give a lower level of government.
- The central government can take power back from the state government.
- The lower level of government has no right to their power.
- Under the federal government, some power is given to the central government, and some power is given to the state government.
- Under it, the power of each tier specified in the constitution.
- The central government has no right to take back the power of the state government.
- The lower level has a right on their power.
What make India a federal country?
- India is a federal country become it fulfill all the feature of federalism.
- When India got independence, the constitution declared India as a union of state. It did not use the word of federalism.
- All the features of federalism have been very well assimilated in the Indian constitution.
Explanation of each Feature(imp.)
1. The three tier system of government:-
- The constitution originally provided for a two-tier system of government→Union & State government.
- Later a third tier is added in India.
- It includes municipality(for urban) and panchayat(for rural).
- Each tier has its own jurisdiction.
2. Division of power:-
- The constitution provided a there fold distribution of legislative power between central & state government.
- The power of central & state governments has been clearly divided by the provision of three lists of subjects → 1. Union list 2. State list 3. Con-current list.
a. Union government
- It include subject of national importance.
- It contain 97 subjects.
- Subjects→ foreign, affair, banking, currency, communication, defense etc.
- Union government(central government) make law regarding these subject.
b. State government
- It include the subject of local or state importance.
- It include 66 subjects.
- Subjects→ agriculture, irrigation, trade, police etc.
- Only the state government can make law regarding.
c. Con-current list
- It include subject of common interest to both central government as well as the state government.
- It contain 43 subjects.
- Subjects→ education, forest, criminal, divorce etc.
- Both central & state government make law on the above mentioned subject.
- If their law conflict with each other, the law made by the union govt. will prevail.
3. Unequal power to different administration unit:-
- As we know that India is a holding together federation and in this of federation equal power is not given to the constituent unit.
- In India, states are not given identical power
- Some state like Jammu & Kashmir has some special status(according to section 370 of the Indian constitution).
- J&K has its own constitution.
- Without the approval of state assembly(J&K) some provisions of the Indian constitution are not applicable to this state.
- The Indian people who are not permanent citizens of J&K cannot by land in J&K.
- The same provision exists for Assam & some other state of the northeast region of India.
- Some state is too small to become an independent state like Chandigarh, Lakshadweep they are called union territories and they ruled by the central government.
- These states do not have the power of the state.
4. Change in the basic provision of the constitution:-
- It is not easy to make a change is a power-sharing arrangement.
- The parliament can not its own change in this arrangement.
- Any change to the constitution has to be first passed by both the house of the parliament with at least two-third majority.
- Then they have to approve by the legislature of at least half of the total state.
5. Role of judiciary:-
- The judiciary plays an important role in the correct implementation of the constitutional provision.
- In case any dispute arising regarding the power-sharing decision of the supreme court & respective high court stand to be final.
6. Financial resource:-
- The constitution has clearly differentiated between the financial resource of the center & state government.
- The central government have an income tax, excise duty, corporate tax, etc.
- The state government runs their respective government by imposing stamp duty, building tax, land revenue, etc.
What about a subject that does not fall into any of the three lists?
- The three lists are quite extensive, but some subjects such as science & technology have gain importance with changing time a provision has been made by the constitution regarding such subjects which are not included in the above three lists or which come up after the constitution was formed.
- Only the central government has the power to form the law.
Coming together VS Holding together federation
Coming together federation
- In this independent state coming together on their own to form a bigger unit.
- The state has more power than the central govt. and every state has equal power.
- Ex:- U.S.A., Australia.
Holding together federation
- In this, a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent state.
- The central government is more powerful than the state, every state has unequal power.
- Ex:- India, Belgium.
How is federalism practiced in India successfully?
- The success of federalism depends upon the two following factors→ 1. Constitutional provision.2. Nature of democratic politics.
- The real success of federalism in India can mostly depend upon the nature of democratic politics.
- The democratic politics ensured the spirit of federalism respect of diversity & desire for living together make India a successful feudal country.
- The first major test for democratic politics in our country was the creation of a linguistic state.
- Many new states have been created and many old states vanished.
- Currently, there are 29 states & 9 union territories in India.
- Area boundaries and names of the state have been changed.
- The people who spoke the same language lived in the same state.
- There is some state which was created on the basis of culture, ethnicity, and culture.
- These states are Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand.
- Some national leaders feared that this idea, wow lead to the disintegration of the country.
- So the central government resisted the idea for some time.
- But the formation of a linguistic state made India more united.
- It also made the administration easier.
- No language was given the state of national language by our constitution.
- Hindi was identified as the official language.
- 40% of the people speak Hindi as their mother tongue.
- There are 22 languages recognized as a scheduled language.
- Other languages are known as non-scheduled languages.
- Every state has its own official language.
- The use of English for official purposed was to stop in 1965, according to the constitution.
- But the non-Hindi speaking state like Tamil Nadu opposed him.
- The central govt. agreed on the use of English along with Hindi.
- The promotion of Hindi became of the official policy of the government of India.
- Promotion does not mean that the central government can impose Hindi on a state where people speak different languages.
- Restructuring the center-state relation is one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practice.
- The success of federalism depends to a large extent on the ruling parties and leader how the follow the power-sharing arrangement.
- For a long time, the same party ruled both at the center and in most of the state, resulting in that state government did not use their right as an autonomous federal unit.
- Sometimes when the ruling party in the center and state was different from the central government tried to suppress the state government (by dismissing state government).
- All these things were a threat to the spirit of federalism all this changed after 1990.
- There was a rise of many regional political parties and coalition government at the center.
- Now no single party got a clear majority in Lok Sabha, the national parties had to enter into an alliance with many parties included regional parties.
- The supreme court ordered that the central government can not dismiss the state government, all these things increase the strength of federalism.
Local Government Divided into Two-Part:-(imp.)
1. Panchayati Raj(village)
- Panchayati Raj(village):-
- Panchayati raj system is divided into three tiers. Except for Goa, J&K, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Nagaland(they have two-tier)
- In 1992, the 73rd amendment was done for it.
- It was implemented in 1993. It was recommended by the Balwant Mehta committee.
- The election is conducted by the state election commission(head appointed by the government).
- Panchayati Raj divided into 3 parts →i. Village panchayat ii. Block Samiti iii. Zila Parishad
i. Village Panchayat:-
- The head is called PARDHAAN, Panch, or Sarpanch.
- He is elected by the gram sabha.
- Gram sabha consists of people of the age 18 or 18+(voters).
- They meet twice a year. Tenure is 5 years.
- If dissolved the revolution held within 6 months. Its the lowest level.
ii. Block Samiti:-
- Its the 2nd level under Panchayati Raj.
- Block Samiti consists of 20 to 60 villages depending on area and population(average population needed 80000).
- There are 25-26 members in block Samiti(elected by pradhans).
- The head is called→ PRAMUKH.
iii. Zila Parishad:-
- The panchayat at the district level is called Zila Parishad.
- All the block Samiti in a district together form the Zila Parishad.
- Most member of Zila Parishad is elected member of the Lok sabha and MLA’s of that district. The head is called→ CHAIRMAN.
- In 1992, the 74th amendment was done for it.
- In was implemented in 1993.
- It suggested by the Balwant Mehta committee.
- Municipality divided into three-part→ i. Nagar panchayat ii. Municipal councils iii. Municipal corporation
i. Nagar Panchayat:-
- Its a panchayat at newly area which is converted from village to town.
- Head is called chairman(20,000-80,000 population).
- Every adult can participate in the election.
ii. Municipal Council:-
- The municipal council is set up in a small town.
- Head is called CHAIRMAN(20,000-1,00,000 population).
iii. Municipal Corporation:-
- These are set up in large cities.
- Head is called→ MAYOR(above 1lakh population).
What is Decentralization?
- When power is taken away from central and state government and given to local government its called decentralization.
Benefit of Decentralization:-
- Distribution of burden of top-level.
- A large number of problems and issues of the local level are best settled at the local level.
- People have a better knowledge of the problem in their localities.
- They have a better idea to have to manage the problem efficiently.
- More and more people can participate in power-sharing.
- More participation of the people in power-sharing increases the strengthens of democracy.
When a major step was taken toward decentralization? What was done to make third-tier more effective?
- A major step toward decentralization was taken in 1992.
- The constitution was amended to make third-tier more effective.
- Step to be taken to make it more effective is→ Its constitutionally mandatory to hold a regular election at the local level.
- The seat is reserved for SC, ST, and OBC. 1/3 rd seat is reserved for women.
- An independent institution called the state election commission has been created in each state to conduct a panchayat or municipal election.
- The state government is required to share some power and revenue with local government bodies.
- The nature of sharing various from state to state.
About- Federalism class 10 notes
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