Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 4 | History

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Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes

Introduction of the Forest Society and Colonialism:- Forest Society and Colonialism this is chapter 4 of CBSE history. In this notes, we cover every topic from your NCERT book like Shifting Cultivation, Forest Transformation in Java, Plantation and so many other topics we cover in this chapter. So let’s start the Forest Society and Colonialism chapter with a simple question: What is the Uses of Forest Products?

Uses of Forest Products

  1. We get various things from forests like paper, desk, table, doors, and windows.
  2. The dyes that color our clothes. Spices, coffee, gum, honey, rubber, tea, etc.
  3. Tendu leaf is use for making ‘bidis’. The oil of sal seeds used in making chocolates.
  4. Herbs are use for making medicines.
  5. We get Bamboo, wood for fuel, grass, fruits, flowers, animals, birds, etc we get from the forest.

Fact:- There are five hundred spices of plants that are possible to find in the Amazon forest and Western Ghat.

 The Reasons of Deforestation in Colonial India (v.imp)

  1. The land was improve for a purpose:-
    1. Housing,
    2. Plantation,
    3. Cultivation,
    4. Industries,
    5. A growing commercial crop like jute, sugar, and wheat, etc.
  2. Forest trees cut for the purpose of sleepers:-
    1. Sleepers are use for making railways.
    2. the spread of long-tail trees was cut down for making sleepers.
    3. Each mile of railway tracks required 1760-2000 sleepers.
    4. Only in Madras’ presidency, 35000 trees was cut down for making sleepers.
    5. The government gave contracts to private contractors to cut trees. They cut the trees indiscriminately(blindly).
  3. Supply of timber for the purpose of the Royal Navy.
    1. Oak trees was require to make Royal Navy ships.
    2. Oak forests were disappearing in England.
    3. For this purpose in 1820, they send a search party in India.
    4. Within a decade trees were being fell on a massive scale and a large quantity of timber was being export from India.
Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes
Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes

What is Plantation?

  • Its a type of cultivation in which on a large area a single crop is planted like tea, coffee, and rubber plantation.
  • Britisher thought that natural forests were unproductive.
  • So they cut the trees for plantation and a single crop like tea, coffee, rubber are planted to earn a profit.

Fact:- Between 1700-1995. 13.9 million(1,39,00,000) sq. a kilometer of forest area cut for the purpose of industries(9.3% of the world’s total area).

Who was Dietrich Brandis? (imp.)

  • Dietrich Brandis was the first inspector general of forest in India, he was a German expert.
  • He was appointed by Britisher to conserve the forest.
  • Brandis set up the Indian forest service in 1864.
  • Brandis realize that a proper system should be introduce with a legal section.
  • He helped to formulate the Indian forest act of 1865.
  • The imperial institution was set up in Dehradun in 1906.

What do you mean by Scientific Forestry?

  • It was a system that was teach in the Imperial forest research institute in Dehradun(1906).
  • It was a system in which different types of trees were cut down and in their place, one type of plant is planted is called a plantation.
  • Forest officials surveyed the forest timely.
  • They plan how much of the plantation area to cut every year and the area cut was replant

1st forest act in 1865 and it was amend twice, Explain.

  • It was amend two times once in 1878 and then in 1927.
  • The act 1878 divided forest into three categories:-
    • Reserved forest,
    • Protected,
    • Village forest.
  • The villagers could not take anything from the reserved forest.

How were the living tribe people affected after the implementation of the forest act?

  • The forest act brought serves hardship for forest villagers.
  • They were not able to cut trees, grazing their cattle collecting fruits & roots hunting and fishing became illegal.
  • Shifting cultivation was a ban.
  • They were starting to steal wood from the forest if they caught they punished.
  • Forest guards take the bride from then.

Shifting Cultivation
Shifting Cultivation

What is Shifting Cultivation? (imp)

  • Forest rule banned the shifting cultivation. It was the livelihood of the forest community and the forest people lost their livelihood.
  • Shifting cultivation:- It’s cultivation where some part of the forest area of cut and burn.
  • Seeds are shown in Ashes(potash) after the first monsoon rains.
  • The crop is harvest in October & November.
  • Such plots are cultivate for 2 or 3 years and then left for 12 to 18 years for the forest to grow back.

Different names of shifting cultivation in different part of world:-


  • Southeast Asia
  • Central America
  • Africa
  • Sri Lanka
  • India


  • -Lading
  • -Milpa
  • -Tavy, Chitemene
  • -Chena
  • -Bewar, Penda, etc.

Why the Britisher banned the Shifting Cultivation?

  • Cutting of trees under shifting cultivation reduce the valuable timber.
  • When a forest was burn the valuable timber was destroy with flame.
  • It was harder or difficult for the Britisher government to calculate taxes under shifting cultivation.

Hunting was ban during the colonial period, but who could hunt?

  • Common people were ban from hunting.
  • But British officials and Nawab’s could hunt.
  • They believe that will animals were treated to live of people and to the cultivates.
  • They started giving rewards for killing wild animals.
  • In 1875-1925, over 80,000 tigers, 1,50,000 leopard and 2,00,000 wolves was kill.
  • Maharaja of Sarguja alone shot 1157 tigers and 2,000 leopards up to 1957.
  • George Yule(A British administrator) killed 400 tigers.
  • So the killing of tigers became a sporting trophy.

After the enactment of the forest act, the livelihood of the people was destroy but what were the new opportunity of jobs for theirs?

  • People were employed by Britisher for plantation work like tea & coffee.
  • They got work in mines like coal mines and iron mines.
  • They started work by making sleepers for railways tracks.

‘New opportunity of work did not always mean improved well-being for the people’ Explain?

  • The condition of workers was not good and they were force to work in plantation and mines.
  • Their wages were very low and working conditions also very bad.
  • They could not return easily to their homes villages from where they had been recruited(workplace).


Define Bastar in Detail (v.imp)

  • Bastar is located on the Southernmost part of Chattisgarh.
  • In 1947, it was a part of Madhya Pradesh.
  • On its borders, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Maharastra are located.
  • The central part of Bastar is on a plateau.
  • On its North, Chattisgarh plain is located and on its South, Godawari plain is located.
  • Different tribal communities live there like Maria, Gond, Dhurwas, Bharat, and Holbas.
  • They speak different languages.

The Lifestyle of the People of Bastar

  • They believed that each village was given its hand by earth and in return, they look after the earth.
  • People of Bastar make different offerings to each agricultural festival.
  • They show respect to the spirit of the river the forest and the mountain.
  • They looked after their natural resources within their boundary.
  • If people from villages take something from the forest of other villages, they pay Dand or Devsari( it’s the type of small fee or compensation paid by people).
  • Every year a cluster of villages has organized the headman of the village participate in it.
  • They discuss their issues and problems.

The Fears of Bastar People

  • Shifting cultivation was ban and 2/3rd forest area was reserve.
  • Hunting, collecting fuelwood, grazing cattle all were ban.
  • They were not allow to enter in reserve forest.
  • They were allow to enter in reserved forest area only if the people give free service for:-
    • Cutting timber,
    • Making sleepers,
    • Protecting forest from forest fires(these villages are known as forest villages).
  • People were displace from their villages without any notice and living rent was increase.
  • The tribe families suffered from:-
    • In 1899-1900
    • In 1907-1908

Fact:- A missionary William word quoted about the rebellion that from all directions comes training into Jagdalpur, police, merchant, forest peons, school, and immigrants.

Where the rebellion started first and what were the symbols and activities they did?

  • In 1910, the rebellion was first started in the Kanger forest area then spread to other parts of Bastar(Dhurvas community).
  • Here the reservation first took place.
  • Symbols used for rebellion in 1910:-
    • Mango bough,
    • A lump of earth,
    • Chilies,
    • Arrows,
  • Every village contributed something to meet rebellion expenses.
  • Activities under rebellion:-
    • Bazar was looted,
    • They looted grain and redistributed,
    • They attack on those who were associated with the colonial state,
    • The houses of officers & traders, school & police stations were burn and rob.
  • The Britisher repressed the rebellion within three months (Feb-may).
  • They never captured or managed to control Gunda dhru.

What happened with the forest in 1970?

  • In 1970, the World Bank purpose that 4600 hectares of sal forest should be replace by tropical Pine forests.
  • Pine provided pulp for the paper industry.
  • After the protest by local environmentalists, the project was stop.

Fact:- The Britisher repressed the rebellion within three months(Feb-may).

Forest transformation in Java
Forest Transformation in Java

Forest Transformation in Java

1. Introduction of Java

  • Its Island in Indonesia.
  • It’s famous for rice production and Java was rule by Dutch.
  • In 1600, it’s population was 3.4 million.
  • Here the land was fertile and many communities living on mountains and practicing shifting cultivation.

2. Woodcutters of Java

  • The Kalangs of Java community famous for wood cutting and shifting cultivation.
  • In 1755, when Mata Ram kingdom was divided, the 6000 Kalangs families were also divided between two kingdoms.
  • Without Kalangs it was difficult for the kingdom to built their palaces and harvest teak.
  • When the Dutch began to control Java, they wanted to make Kalangs under them.
  • In 1770, Kalangs opposed the Dutch and attack on a Dutch port of Joana.
  • But this rebel was suppress by Dutch.

3. Dutch Scientific Forestry

  • In the 19th century, the Dutch enacted the forest law in Java.
  • They banned the people to enter in the forest area.
  • The forest timber used for making ships and railways.
  • In 1882, 2,80,000 sleepers was export from Java alone.
  • All this required labor:-
    • To cut trees,
    • To transport lag,
    • To prepare sleepers.
  • The Dutch first exempted the rent of those people who provided tree labor (this system was known as the Blandongdiensten system).
  • Later rent was impose on villages but they were give small wages for services.

Who was Samin and what was his challenge?

  • In 1890, Surontiko Samin lived in Randublatung village, a teak forest village.
  • Samin argued that the state had not created the wind, water, earth, and wood so it could not own it.
  • So a widespread movement was develop.
  • His son-in-law helped him to organize this movement.
  • In 1907; 3,000 families followed him.
  • The protested by lying down on their ground when the Dutch come to the survey and refuse to pay taxes and perform labor.

What was the impact of the 1st world war and 2nd world war on the forest.

  • These two wars led a great impact on forests the trees were cut down on large numbers.
  • In Indian Britisher cut down trees to meet their needs.
  • In Java, Dutch followed a ‘Scorched earth’ policy. The policy was:-
    • Destroying sawmills,
    • Burning huge piles, against teak logs.,
  • They did not want the Japanese to take benefits from these forests.
  • When the Japanese occupied Java, the recklessly cut trees.
  • Forest people cut the trees and occupied that area for cultivation.
  • They forced after the war, it was difficult for the Indonesia government to take back this land from villages.

What is New Development in Forestry?

  • Conservation of forest rather than collecting timber because of the more important goal.
  • The government recognized that the participation of forest village people is more important to conserve the forest.
  • In many places, sacred groves are protected by villages like Sarnas, Kan-Rai, etc.
  • Some villagers have been patrolling their own forests.
  • Each household taking and its turn to protect the forest.

About- Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes

So your Forest Society and Colonialism chapter is complete and in Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes we cover every topics from your the Forest Society and Colonialism chapter. And I hope you enjoy to read Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes. So please give your feedback in the comment box what you like and also why you not like, comment below. Because it help us to make best notes for you.

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