Gender, Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2020]
Introduction:- In Gender, Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes we talk about the Feminist, Communalism, Political of Caste, Secular state, and so many other topics we cover in Gender, Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes. So let’s start it.
Explain Gender division?
- Gender division is a form of hierarchical social division that can be seen everywhere.
- The outcome/result of the sexual division of labor:-
- In past the role of women in public affairs(election, politics, voting right) very minimum.
- The role of males in public affairs is very high.
- The gender issue was raised in society.
- The women started demanding their political rights as well as educational right.
- If their demands were not fulfilled then they start a movement.
- This movement is also called the feminize movement
How different Gender work?
Inside the home ↓
Women do all work inside the home such as:-
- Washing clothes,
- Looking after children etc.
Outside the home ↓
Men do all work outside the home such as:-
- Labouring etc.
Sexual division of Labor ➢
- A system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women or the family or organized by them through the domestic helpers.
What is Feminist?
- A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for all human beings is called a feminist.
- Feminist movement:- Agitations or movement demanding enhancement in the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities are called the feminist movement.
What is Patriarchal society?
- A male-dominated society is called a patriarchal society.
- Patriarchy:- Literally, rule by father this concept is used to refer to a system that values men more and gives them power over women.
Women face disadvantage discrimination and oppression in various ways, Explain?
- The literacy rate among women is only 65% as compared with 82% among men.
- Similarly, a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies. Girls are performing as well as boys in school.
- But they drop out because parents prefer to spend their resources on their boy’s education rather than spending equally on their sons and daughter.
- The proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small.
- On average, an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day.
- The equal wages act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work.
- However, in almost all areas of the worker from sports and cinema to factories and fields, women are paid less than men, even when both do exactly to same work.
- In many parts of India, parents prefer to have sons and fired ways to have the girl child aborted before she a born.
- Such sex-selective abortion lead to a decline in the child sex ratio.
- Women face harassment, exploitation, and violence in domestic places.
In India politics women’s respresentation.
- In India, the proportion of women in the legislature(Lok Sabha, Raj Sabha, and President) has been very low.
- The status of women’s representation in India’s Legislative bodies are as follow’s:-
- i- Central Legislative
- Less than 10% of its total strength is women.
- ii- State Legislative
- Less than 5% of their total strength is women.
- iii- Panchayati Raj
- One-third of the seats are reserved for women.
- i- Central Legislative
- Now there are more than 10 lakh elected women representation in rural and urban bodies.
- Woman’s organizations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation.
- That at least one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies for women.
- A bill with this proposal has been pending before the parliament for more than a decade.
- Gender division is an example that some of the social division needs to be an expression in politics.
Religion, Communication, and Politics
How are religions difference expressed in politics?
- By Gandhiji:-
- Gandhiji said that religion can never be separate from politics.
- What he meant by religion was not any particular religion like Hindusim or Islam etc.
- But moral values that inform all religions.
- He believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.
- By human right:-
- Human rights groups in our country have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities.
- They have demanded that the government take special steps to protect religious minorities.
- By women’s movement:-
- The women’s movement has argued that family laws of all religions discriminate against women.
- So, they have demanded that the government should change these laws to make them more equitable.
What is Family Laws?
- The laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance etc. in our country different family laws apply to followers of different religions.
- It means to attempt to promote religious ideas between groups of people who are identified as different communities.
- This happens when one religious belief is presented as superior to those of other religious beliefs.
- Communalism happens when the demands of one religion are against the cost of other religions.
- This happens when religions are presented in exclusive partition terms.
- This happens when the government of states used religious dominance over other religions.
What is Communal politics?
- The use of religion in politics is known as communal politics.
- It is based on the idea that religions are the principal basis of social communal.
- Every religion presented in exclusive terms.
Explain how communication is being expressed in politics?
Communication can take various forms politics:-
- Prejudices and stereotypes make the mind communal which makes one religion is superior over the religion.
- A communal mind often leads to a queue for the political dominance of one’s own religious community.
- Some leader uses religion at times of election. They use religious symbols, beliefs, ideas to win the election.
- Communal rights or violence are the ugliest forms of communalism.
- For Example India and Pakistan suffered some of the worst communal riots at the time of partition.
What is Secular state?
- A state which does not have any official religion. It provide equal status to all religion.
What make India a secular state?
- Secularism means no special status is given to any religion. It is just hot and ideology of some parties or persons.
- There is no official religion for the Indian states unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka or Islam in Pakistan.
- Indian constitution provides the freedom to all to protest, practice, and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
- The constitution prohibits discrimination or grounds of religion.
- The constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality with religious communities. Example- Untouchability
Caste and Politics
Caste inequalities in detail. [CBSE 2020]
- All societies have some form of social division of labor most societies’ occupations are passed on from one generation to another.
- A caste system is an extreme form of this; Hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals – makes it different from other societies.
- Members of the same caste groups were supposed to form a social community that practiced the same occupation married within the caste groups are did not eat with members of other caste groups.
- Caste discrimination was based on the exclusion of and discrimination against the outcaste groups.
- They were subjected to the inhuman pro of untouchability reformer like:-
- Jotiba Phule,
- B.R. Ambedkar,
- Periyar Ramaswamy etc work to establish a caste inequality free society.
- Partly due to the castes and the caste system in modern India have undergone changes.
Yet caste has not disappeared from contemporary India. Some of the older aspect of caste which is persisting. Explain?
Yet caste has not disappeared from contemporary India. Some of the older aspects of caste which are persisting are as follows:-
- Even now most people marry within their own caste or tribe.
- Untouchability has not ended completely despite constitution prohibition.
- The effect of centuries of advantages and disadvantages continued to be felt today.
- Urbanization:- Shift of population from rural areas to urban areas.
- Occupational mobility:- Shift from one occupation to another usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors.
- Caste hierarchy:- A ladder-like information in which all the caste groups are placed from this ‘highest’ to the lowest castes.
Caste in Politics(negative)
How does the caste effect politics?
Influence of caste on politics:-
- While choosing candidates for election, political parties consider the caste composition of the voters to win supporters.
- When the government is formed, political parties take care of those representatives from different caste find a place in the government.
- Political parties make an appeal to the caste sentiments to win votes.
- Some political parties are known to favor some particular caste.
- Universal Adult Franchise and the principle of one person one vote have compelled the political leaders to bring caste sentiment into politics to muster support.
The focus or caste in politics can sometimes give or impression that an election is all about caste and nothing else. Do you agree? Explain.
No, i do not agree. The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that election are all about caste and nothing else. This is for form true because:-
- No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. So, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win the election.
- No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community. When people say that a caste is a ‘vote bank’ of one party, it usually means that a large proportion of the voters from the caste vote for the party.
- Many political parties may put up a candidate from the same caste some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidates from their caste.
- The ruling party of the sitting M.P. or MLA frequently loses the election in our country that could not have happened if all caste or communities were frozen in their political preferences.
Caste in Politics(positive)
How does the caste effect politics? [CBSE 2019]
Influence of politics on caste:-
- Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within its sub-estate.
- Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other estates or communities.
- New kinds of caste groups have entered politics like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste.
- Politics in caste has allowed many disadvantaged caste groups to demand their share of power.
- Caste politics has helped the Dalits and OBC’s to gain better access to decision making.
About- Gender, Religion and Caste class 10 notes
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