Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes | Geography CBSE

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Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes

Introduction:- After reading this manufacturing industries class 10 notes your all topics, concept, and points is clear and don’t need to read NCERT book or handwritten notes because in this manufacturing industries class 10 notes we cover all your topics, question and point in the very easy word. So let’s start our class 10 manufacturing industries notes with a simple question – What is Manufacturing?


What is Manufacturing? [CBSE 2011, 15]

  • The process of converting raw material into useful goods with the help of technology or machines is called manufacturing.
  • Ex:- Paper is manufactured from wood and so many importance of the Manufacturing Industries like:-

1. Reduce depending on primary sector:-

  • Before the development of industries, most of the working population is dependent on agriculture, it leads to high dependence on the agriculture sector. 
  • After coming of industries, most of the people transferred from the primary sector to the industrial sector.

2. Eradicate unemployment & poverty:-

  • It provide source of employment for the country like India it reduce the poverty also.

3. Rise in foreign exchange:-

  • The export of manufactured goods expands trade with the rest of the world, which helps to bring foreign currency.

4. Manufactured good have higher value:-

  • Manufactured good has a higher value than raw material countries who are successful in converting its raw material into finished good are more wealthy.

Agro-based industries:-  These industries used raw material from agriculture. They generated employment in a rural area and they produce consumer goods. Ex:- sugar, jute, etc.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes

 “Agriculture & industry are not exclusive of each other, they move hand in hand.” Explain?

1. Contribution of agriculture to industry:-

  • Agriculture provides raw material to the industry such as jute, cotton, sugarcane, etc.
  • It provides food to industrial workers.
  • Its consumer of industrial goods like insecticides, pesticides, tractor, etc.

2. Contribution of industry to agriculture:-

  • The industry provides input to agriculture like fertilizer, pesticides etc. It provides infrastructural facilities.
  • It can absorb surplus worker or worker of agriculture and reduces the pressure of agriculture.

State any five-factor affecting the location of industries. [CBSE 2011, 15, 17]

1. Raw material:-

  • The location of industries is generally determined by the availability of raw material.
  • For example:- The jute mills of Bengal are concentrated close to the source of raw material near the Hooghly river.

2. Power:-

  • A regular supply of electricity also influences the localization of industries because most of the industries are running with the help of power.

3. Climate:-

  • Climate also plays an important role in the localization of industries.
  • For ex:- Cotton textile industries require a humid climate.
  • So the majority of the cotton textile mill are concentrated in Maharashtra & Gujarat.

4.  Government policies:-

  • Government policies also affect the location of industries like→ a. Elimination of pollution of air, water, b. Avoiding their heaving dusting in big cities.

5. Market:-

  • The entire process of manufacturing is useless until the finished goods reach the market.
  • Nearness to the market is essential for the quick disposal of manufactured goods.
  • It helps in reducing transport costs.

Mineral-based industries:- These industries use raw material as minerals. They provide employment both in rural and urban areas and they produce both consumer & capital good. Ex:- iron & steel industry.


Importance of textile industries for the Indian economy

  • It occupies a unique position in the Indian economy.
  • It contributes 14% to industrial production.
  • It generates employment to 35 million people directly and the second largest after agriculture.
  • Due to this foreign exchange increased by 24.6%.
  • Textile industries contribute 4% to GDP.
  • Its the only industry which completes its value chain from raw material to finished good making.

“The textile industry is the only industry in the country which self-reliant and complete in the value chain” justify the statement.

  • Self-reliance is on the industry which does not depend upon other industries for its various inputs.
  • A various process like spinning, weaving, dyeing garment manufacturing is carried out under the single roof.
  • From the production of raw material to the delivery of the final product a regular value addition is carried out.

Cotton Textiles

Why was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton-growing belt in the early years? Explain. [CBSE 2015]

  • There is large-scale production of cotton in the region. Hence, there is a regular supply of raw material.
  • This region has a favorable climate which ensures the production of cotton.
  • Mumbai is the major seaport of India through its good quality cotton, machine, and raw material are easily imported & finished goods can be easily exported.
  • There is the availability of capital in large amounts in this area, which is a very much needed requirement for textile industries.
  • Cotton textile is labor-intensive and in Maharashtra & Gujarat, there is a large population so it provides employment to very many people.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes
Cotton Textile

Why it’s important for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?

  • It’s imported to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities.
  • Because the weaving sector is a labor-intensive sector and improvement of this sector will provide employment opportunities to large no. of the farmer.
  • Yarn is a semi-finished good. Instead of exporting yarn, India should finish well like cloths. This will increase our earnings.

Explain problems faced by cotton textile industries?

  • There is an irregular supply of raw material which hinders the continuity of the production process.
  • There is no adequate supply of power to industries & sometimes power failing is the main problem that creates problems for cotton textile industries.
  • There is outdated machinery are used for production there is a need to up to date our machinery.
  • Another problem is the low output of labor and stiff competition with the synthetic fiber industries & foreign industries.

Jute Industries

The jute textile industry is mainly concentrated in the Hooghly river basin(in West Bengal). Why give a reason. (imp.)

  • Bengal is the main jute producing region.
  • The jute industry consume large quantities of water which is easily available from the Hooghly river.
  • Cheap labor is easily available from adjoining states of Bihar, Bengal, and Odisha.
  • If required, jute can be easily imported from Bangladesh.
  • There is a good network of railways, roadways, and waterways which facilitate the movement of raw material to mill easily.

State the challenges faced by the Jute industry. (imp.)

  • As we know that jute is mainly used for packages.
  • With the invention of synthetic as a substitute for the jute is giving a stiff(tough) competition to jute industries.
  • Because of old technology the cost of production of jute is very high due to which demand for jute goods has declined.
  • International competition, especially from Bangladesh had led to the decline of this Industry.

Mini steel plant:- These plants are small plants, they have electric arc furnace and they used steel scrap & sponge iron as inputs. They produce mild & alloy steel.

What was the major objective of National Jute Policy(2005)? Why has been the internal demand for Jute increase?

  1. In 2005, national jute policy was formulated with following objectives:-
  • To increase productivity,
  • To improve quality,
  • To ensure good prices to the jute farmer,
  • To enhance the field per hectare.

2. The internal demand for jute has been on the increase because of the following reason:-

  • The government of India has made the use of jute packaging mandatory(compulsory).
  • The growing global concern for the environment-friendly objective, its best product for packaging.

State the feature of the Sugar Industries of India.

  • India is the second-largest producer of sugar.
  • There are more than 662 sugar mills in-country (in 2010-11)
  • 60% of the mills are located in U.P. and Bihar.
  • Most of the mills are in the co-operative sector.
  • The industry is seasonable in nature.
  • India is first in the production of Gur and Khandsari.

Mineral Based Industries

Why are the iron & steel industries are called a Basic and Heavy industry? [CBSE 2012, 15]

  1. It’s the industry that led down the foundation for the development of a country.
  2. It provides employment to many people.
  3. It’s a heavy industry because all the raw material & finished goods are heavy and bulky.
  4. Steel is used in the production of various good like: –
  • Engineering goods,
  • Construction material,
  • Defense equipment,
  • Medical equipment etc.

What are the major problems of the Iron and Steel industries? [CBSE 2011]

  1. High cost and limited availability of coking coal,
  2. Lower productivity of labor,
  3. Shortage pf power including power failure,
  4. Poor infrastructure,
  5. Lack of capital and lower investment in research and development.

Give a reason why the iron and steel industry in India is concentrated around the Chota Nagpur plateau region. [CBSE 2012]

  • This region is famous for iron ores.
  • The state like Bihar, Bengal, and Jharkhand provides raw material.
  • Coal is used as fuel in this industry and easily available in this region.
  • Cheap labor is available because of more population of this region.
  • The Damodar Valley Corporation provides power to these industries.
  • The export and import of iron and other things are carried out from the Kolkata port.

Integrated steel plant:- These plants are large plants and everything is done in one complex from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling, and shaping.

Explain about Automobile Industries

  • This industry provides transportation facilities for goods and passengers.
  • It includes track, car, scooters, etc.
  • This industry has increased its production 4 times in less than 15 years(after liberalization).
  • Due to foreign direct investment new technology boost this industry.
  • At present their area. 15 manufacture of passenger carb. 9 of commercial vehicles. 14 of two or three-wheelers
  • These industries are located in Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, etc.

Liberalization:- It means freedom of the producing unit from direct or physical control imposed by the govt.


Information and Technology

What are Software Technology Parks?

  1. Software technology parks have been set up in 1991 to promote and boost software export from India. This park also trains professionally.
  2. Importance Software Parks:-
  • It helps in employment generation.
  • Near about 30% of the people employed in this sector are women.
  • This industry is the major foreign currency earner in the country.
  • In 2018-19 Indian IT industry do 150$ Billion business all over the world.
  • Ex:- BPO(Business Processes Outsourcing).
  • The continued growth of hardware & software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes
Software Technology

What are Industrial pollution and Environmental degradation?

  1. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution air, water, land, and noise pollution. The reason for the pollution are:-
  • Air pollution is caused by the presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases that are released by industries during the production process are Sulhur dioxide & carbon monoxide.
  • Water pollution is caused by organic & inorganic industrial wastage discharged into the river
  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories & thermal plants are drained into the river and pond before cooling, it hurt much aquatic life.
    • The wastage from nuclear plants causes cancer and birth defect.
  • Dumping of waste especially glass, harmful chemicals, packaging material, salt, soap, etc. makes soil degraded.
  • Noise pollution caused due to industrial and construction activities, factory equipment, generator, electric saws, drilling machines, etc.

2. Step to control Pollution:-

  • Air pollution control by fitting smoke filter at the place of the chimney and more use of oil and gas instead of coal.
  • Water pollution:-
    • Minimize the use of water and recycle water two or more times.
    • Treatment of hot water before releasing.
    • Treatment of industrial effluent in three-phase:-
    • 1→ Primary treatment by mechanized,
    • 2→ Secondary treatment by biological process,
    • 3→ Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical & physical process,
    • Rainwater harvesting.
  • Noise pollution is controlled by fit silencer in machinery and generator, the machine should be redesigned or replaced old ones with new ones which crate sound and noise absorbing material should be used.

Foreign direct investment:- Its an investment in the form of controlling ownership of a business in the country by an entity based in another country.


Explain the pro-active approach by the National Thermal Power Corporation(NTPC) for preserving the natural environment and resource? [CBSE 2011]

  • NTPC is a major power providing corporation in India.
  • It has ISO certified. The corporation is taking steps to preserve the environment by:-
    • Latest technology and upgrading the existing equipment.
    • Minimizing waste generation by maximizing ash utilization.
    • Planting more and more trees for maintaining ecological balance.
    • Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management and liquid waste management.
    • By ecological monitoring.

About- Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes

In Manufacturing Industries class 10 notes we all topics of your NCERT book like Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Manufacturing, Textile & Automobile Industries and so many other topics we cover in Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes.

So I hope you like Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes this notes is handwritten notes so also i hope you feel it and if you like manufacturing industries notes then please give your valuable feedback in the comment box(below) What we can improve in Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes.

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17 Comments

Deepak Kumar · February 23, 2021 at 2:25 pm

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    ranjanmishra · February 24, 2021 at 6:07 am

    Thank you Deepak, I hope you enjoy it. Read other notes and also I hope you love it.

Pradeep Sharma · February 24, 2021 at 6:02 am

Love your notes sir thanku for making this type of notes because I read my teacher but I nothing understand but after reading your manufacturing industries notes my all confusions clear. Thank you so much keep doing

    ranjanmishra · February 24, 2021 at 6:05 am

    Thank you, Pradeep my aim is also to clear your all confusion. Thank you for this great compliment

Atul · March 21, 2021 at 8:24 am

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    ranjanmishra · March 23, 2021 at 6:23 am

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