Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2020]

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Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Introduction:- I know that you searching a complete Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes that are very easy to learn, easy to understand, and also important question contains. So you visit the right place in this article we cover every topic from your NCERT Geography- Minerals and Energy Resources. So let’s start our Minerals and Energy Resources chapter with a simple question- WHAT IS MINERALS?

What are Minerals?

  • These are naturally occurring substances having a definite chemical composition comprising one or more elements.
  • Minerals can be identify on the basis of their chemical or physical properties.
  • Minerals usually occur in rocks.
  • Mode of Occurrence of Minerals:-
    • Minerals are usually found in ores.
    • Minerals generally occur in these forms(read below).
Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes
Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Igneous Rock [CBSE 2015]

  • It’s formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
  • These are in crystallized form, but not in parallel form.
  • These are found in cracks, faults, or joints.
  • The smaller occurrences are called veins.
  • The larger occurrence is called lodes. EX:- tin, copper, etc.

Ecologist:- They study the formation of minerals their age, physical & chemical composition.

Metamorphic Rock [CBSE 2015]

  • Its a type of rock that changed its structure(form) due to great heat and pressure.
  • These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rock, which changed its structure.

Sedimentary Rocks [CBSE 2015]

  • They have been form as a result of deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata.
  • These rocks are found in bed or layer. EX:- coal & iron etc.
  • Some sedimentary minerals are formed as a result of evaporation, especially in an arid region. EX:- sodium salt.

Ore:- These are an accumulation of any minerals mixed with another element.


  • Another model of formation involves the decomposition of surface rock and removal of a soluble constituent, leaving a residual mass of weathered material which contain ore.
  • Bauxite is the principal ore for Aluminium.


  • The sediment of the rivers may contain minerals.
  • As we know the river mostly originates from mountain/hills/glaciers.
  • The rivers carry with them sediment which got deposit in plain or the base of hills called placer deposit.
  • The minerals which are contain in placer deposits are not eroded with water. EX:- gold & silver.
  • Some minerals are found in ocean waters (common salt).

Geographers:- Geographers study minerals as part of the earth’s crust for a better understanding of landforms.

Rat Hole Mining

  1. Mineral extraction is possible only after getting permission from govt.
  2. But in most of the tribal areas of north-east minerals are own by individuals or communities.
  3. In Meghalaya, these are deposits of coal, iron ore, and limestone.
  4. Coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done by the family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel, known as rat-hole mining.

Uneven Distribution of Minerals Across India [CBSE 2017]

  1. It means that the allocation of minerals is not equal across all over the country.
  2. Somewhere its found in abundance, but at some places, nothing is found like.
  3. This difference occurs due to geological structure, time, etc.

Explain the distribution of iron ore in India?

1. Odisha-Jharkhand Belt:- [2011]

  • This belt is a leading producer of iron ore in India.
  • In Odisha, high-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujha district.
  • Palamau and singhbhum district of Jharkhand is the important producer of hematite iron ore.

2. Durg-Bastar-Chandarpur:- [CBSE 2017]

  • This belt lies in Chattisgarh and Maharastra.
  • These belts are known for a high grade of hematite.
  • These are found in the famous Bailadela range of hills in the Bastar district of Chattisgarh.
  • The range consists of 14 deposits of super high-grade hematite iron ore.
  • It has the best physical properties needed for steel making.
  • Its exported to Japan & South Korea through the Vishakhapatnam port.

3. Chitradurg-Chikmaglur-Tumkur:-

  • This belt is in Karnataka.
  • It has a large reserve of iron ore.
  • The Kudermukh mines located in the western ghats of Karnataka are a 100% export unit.
  • The iron ore is transport as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

4. Maharastra-Goa Belt:-

  • This belt includes the state of Goa and the Ratnagiri district of Maharastra.
  • Though the ore is not of very high quality.
  • The ore is export through the Marmagao port.

What is the utility of manganese? Describe its distribution.

  • It’s an important mineral which is use for making iron and steel.
  • It acts as a basic raw material for manufacturing its alloy.
  • Its also used for the manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, and batteries, etc.
  • Major manganese producing states are:-
    • Odisha (largest producer)
    • M.P.
    • Maharashtra
Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Name a clay-like substance from which alumina and later aluminum are obtain. Give its formation, one use, and two areas where its found.

  • Bauxite:-
    • It’s formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rock in aluminum silicates.
  • Uses:- 
    • It combines the strength of metal such as iron with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.
  • Distribution:-
    • Bauxite deposits are found in the Amarkantak plateau and Maikal hills.

What are the major properties of mica? Mention any three.

  • Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves.
  • It splits easily splits into a thin sheet.
  • This sheet can be so thin that a thousand can be layered into a mica sheet of a few centimeters.
  • It can be yellow, black, green, red, brown.
  • Properties:-
    • Di-electric strength
    • High resistance
    • Use in electricity industries
  • Found:- 
    • Chota Nagpur plateau
    • Ajmer
Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes:

What are the impact of mining on the health of the miners and the environment? [CBSE 2015]

1. Impact of mining on the health of the miners:-

  • The dust and the noxious fumes inhaled by the miners, they suffered due to this for pulmonary diseases.
  • The risk of collapsing mine roof, flood, and fire in the coal mine is a threat to miners.

2. Impact of mining on environment:-

  • The water sources in that region get polluted.
  • Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land, soil and increase the river pollution.

Metallic Minerals:-Metallic minerals are that mineral from which get metal and they are good conductors of heat & electricity. Ex:- iron & gold etc.


  • India is deficient in the reserve and production of copper.
  • Its malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of electricity.
  • It’s used for making electrical cables, electronic and chemical industries.
  • The area where it found:-
    • Balaghat mine
    • Khetri mine

Non-Metallic Minerals:-Metallic minerals are those minerals from which do not get metal and they are bad conductors of heat & electricity. Ex:- coal & mica etc.


  • Its found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium or magnesium carbonates.
  • Its found in sedimentary rocks.
  • Uses:-
    • Its basic raw material for the cement industry.
    • It’s used in chemical, iron, and steel industries.
  • Producer States:-
    • Madhya Pradesh
    • Andhra Pradesh
    • Gujarat

Ferrous Minerals:-This minerals contain iron content and these are helpful in metallurgical industries. Ex:- iron ore & cobalt etc.

Why Need to conserve minerals? [CBSE 2015, 2017]

  1. Insignificant fraction:-
  • The total volume of mineral deposits is in an insignificant fraction, it’s just only 1%  of the earth’s crust.

2. The slow rate of formation:- 

  • We are rapidly consuming minerals resource that require millions of years to be created and concentrated.
  • The geological process of mineral formation is so slow in comparison to its rate of consumption.

3. Increasing cost:-

  • Minerals are extremely valuable but short-lived possession continued extraction of ores lead to increasing cost as minerals extraction comes from greater depths along with the decrease in quality.

4. Impact on environment:-

  • Use of minerals leads to environmental pollution.

5. Future generation:-

  • While using our mineral resources we have to keep in mind the need for future generations.

Non-Ferrous Minerals:- These minerals do not contain iron content and these are helpful in industries like engineering & electrical industries. Ex:- copper & lead etc.

How to conserve minerals resource? [CBSE 2012, 13, 15, 16, 17]

  1. Recycling:- Recycling is an important aspect of minerals, the most recycled items are containers, aluminum cans, and coin, etc.
  2. Using substitutes:- The use of renewable resources of energy is used in place of non-renewable.
  3. Technology:- Improve technology should be used to avoid wastage and control overuse & wastage of minerals.
  4. Resource planning:- 
  • It’s another aspect that is important.
  • The resource is used in such a way that future generations may not fall problems.
  • Priorities need to be fixed in advance so that resources can be used accordingly.

Magnetite:-This is the best quality of iron ore, it contains 70% of iron. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry. [CBSE 2017]

Energy Resource

  • Energy is required in all aspects of life like to cook, to provide light and heat, for vehicles, and to drive machinery in industries.
  • And its divided into 2 part:-
    • Conventional source of energy,
    • Non-conventional source of energy
  • It can be generate through:-
    • Coal,
    • Petroleum,
    • Natural gas
Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes
Energy Resource

Conventional Source of energy

1. Coal

  • Its the most abundant fossil fuel found in India.
  • It’s used for power generation, supply energy needs to industries & domestic needs.
  • Type of coal:-
    • Anthracite:- Its the best quality coal, which contains more than 80% of quality carbon.
    • Bituminous:- Its most popular coal in commercial use and it contains 60%-80% carbon.
    • Lignite:- Its low-grade brown coal, which is soft and containing high moisture. Its found in Neyveli mines in Tamil Nadu & it’s use for the generation of electricity.
    • Peat:- Its low-quality coal, it has low carbon and high moisture & low heating capacity. It burns like wood and gives more smoke.
  • Formation of coal:-
    • Coal was formed from the dead remain of a living organism(plants & animals) buried under the earth millions of years ago.
    • The chemical effect of heat, pressure, and bacteria converted the buried remain of plant and minerals into fossil fuels.
    • Coal is formed in a variety of forms depending on the degree of compression, depth, and time of burial.
    • Decaying plants in swamps produce peat and lignite which have low carbon and high moisture content.
    • Plants and animals that were deeply buried and remain under the earth for a longer period produces bituminous and anthracite which are high-quality coal.

Hydel Power:- Its generated by storing water and its renewable source of energy. It does not cause any pollution and this plant should be near the source of energy.

2. Petroleum

  • Its the mineral oil, which is the next major energy source in India after coal.
  • It provides fuel for lighting, lubricants for machinery, and raw material for a number of industries.
  • The occurrence of Petroleum’s:-
    • Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps.
    • In the region of folding, anticline, or domes, it occurs where oil is trap in the crest of upfold.
    • Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
  • Distribution of Petroleum:-
    • 63% of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai high.
    • 18% from Gujarat and 16% from Assam.
    • Ankleshwar in Gujarat and Digboi and Naharkatiya in Assam.

Thermal Power:- Its generated by consuming coal, petroleum & natural gas, and its non-renewable sources of energy. It causes pollution and setup any place.

3. Natural Gas

  • It’s an important resource and its found in association with or without petroleum.
  • It’s used as a source of energy or as a raw material for petrochemical industries.
  • Its environment-friendly fuel because of low CO2 emission.
  • It’s known as the fuel for the present century.
  • Distribution of Natural Gas:-
    • Large reserves of it discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin.
    • In Mumbai high, Gulf of Cambay, Andaman & Nicobar island.
  • HVJ Natural Gas Pipeline:-
    • Its 1700km long pipeline.
    • It stands for Hazira-Vijaypur-Jagdispur.
    • It links Mumbai high and Bassein with western and northern India’s industries.

Gondwana Coal Fields:- These mines are the main produces of coal in India and these are more than 200 million years ago. These produce good quality of coal & Gondwana coal occurs in Damodar valley, the Godavari, Mahanadi.

Non-Conventional Source of Energy

1. Nuclear Energy

  • Its obtained by altering the structure of the atoms.
  • When an alteration is made, much energy is released this heat is used to generate electric power.
  • Uranium and thorium are used for it and found in the Jharkhand and Aravali range of Rajasthan.
  • The monazite sands of Kerala is rich in Thorium.

Tertiary Coal Fields:- These are the minor producers of coal in India and these are only 55 million years ago. These products of poor quality of coal & tertiary coal occur in the northeastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, and A.P. Nagaland.

2. Solar Energy [CBSE 2015]

  • India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of trapping solar energy.
  • Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.

3. Wind Power

  • Electricity can be generated through winds by planting windmills.
  • The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu(from Nagarcoil to Madurai).
  • Nagarcoil & Jaisalmer are well known for the effective use of wind energy in the country.

Conventional Energy Resource:- These are non-renewable sources of energy and these are going to last long just 100-200 years. These cause air & water pollution. Ex:- coal, petroleum, etc.

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes
Bio Gas

4. Biogas [CBSE 2020]

  • Shrubs, farm waste, animals, and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in a rural area.
  • Decomposition of organic matter yields gas.
  • It has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake, and charcoal.
  • Biogas plants are set up at municipal, cooperative, or individual level. It’s also known as a gobar gas plant.
  • These provide benefits to the farmer by supplying energy and good or improved quality of manure.

5. Tidal Energy

  • Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. Flood gates dams are built across inlets.
  • During high tide, water flows into the inlet and get trapped when the gate is closed.
  • The water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea through a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine.
  • Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of kachchh in Gujarat are the best example of utilizing the tidal energy.

Non-Conventional Energy Resource:- These are a renewable source of energy and these are going to last long forever. These do not cause any pollution. Ex:- solar and wind energy etc.

6. Geothermal Energy

  • It refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth.
  • This energy exists because the earth grows hotter with increasing depth.
  • Where the geothermal gradient is high, groundwater in such an area absorbs heat from the rock and becomes hot.
  • It’s so hot when it rises to the earth’s surface it turns into a stream.
  • This stream is use to more turbines and generate electricity. Ex:- Parvati and Puga valley project.

Why need to the conservation of energy resource? [CBSE 2015, 2011]

  1. Judicial use of limited energy resources like coal and mineral oil because their availability is very limited.
  2. The use of non-renewable resources leads to environmental pollution so we need to stop this.
  3. We use the energy resource by keeping in mind the need for future generations.
  4. The energy resource especially conventional should be less used because their formation takes millions of years.
  5. Wastage of this energy should be minimized.
  6. Modern technology should be used to stop their wastage.
  7. The export of coal, petroleum, and natural gas should be minimized.
  8. We should think about the substitute for non-renewable energy resources, like more and more use of renewable energy resources.

About- Minerals and Energy Resources class 10 notes

In Minerals and Energy Resources class 10 notes we cover so many topics like Tidal, Thermal, Solar & Wind Energy, Natural Gas, Petroleum and so many other topics we read in Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes. So I hope like Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 notes and if like then please give your valuable feedback in the comment box(below).

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