Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2020]
Introduction:- In Nationalism in India class 10 notes we read about Nationalism, Civil disobedience, the Non-cooperation movement, Simon commission, and so many other topics read in Nationalism in India class 10 notes. So let’s start it.
What is Nationalism?
- It’s a belief system which develops a sense of common identity among the member of a nation.
- Some famous 20th-century nationalist regimes are Adolf Hitler (Germany), Sun Yat-sen (Republic of China), etc.
The First World War
What was the effect of the first world war on the new economic and political situation of India?
- It led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was finance by war loans and increasing taxes.
- Custom duties were increase, income tax was introduce.
- During the war year prices increase(double) between 1913 and 1917.
- Forced recruitment was done in a rural area which caused widespread anger.
- Then it 1918-1919 and 1920-1921 crop failed in any parts of India resulting in a shortage of food.
- All this accompanied by an influence epidemic.
- According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famine and epidemic.
The Idea of Satyagraha
- Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915.
- He had come from South Africa, where he had successfully fought by racial discrimination with a unique method of mass agitation, which he termed as satyagraha.
- This method was based on the idea that if someone is fighting for a true cause, there is no need for physical force to fight for the oppression.
- Gandhi believed that a satyagraha could win a battle through non-violence.
- People including the oppressed had to be persuaded to see the truth, rather than being forced to accept the truth by the use of violence.
- Gandhi believed that this religion of non-violence was capable of uniting all the Indians.
1. Satyagraha in Bihar, Champaran(1916):-
- Here peasant was compulsory to grow indigo.
- They were compelled to grow indigo on at least 3/20th their land and sell it at price fixed by European plan.
- Here the peasant struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
2. Satyagraha in Kheda district of Gujarat(1917):-
- Peasant was affect by crop failure and a plague epidemic.
- The peasant could not pay the revenue and demanding the revenue collection be relaxed.
3. Satayagraha in Ahmedabad, Gujarat(1918):-
- Here the movement was done by cotton mill worker.
The Rowlatt Act
Why did the Indian oppose the Rowlatt act?
- The Rowlatt Act was pass by the Imperial legislative council in 1919.
- The Indian member did not support this act.
- But it was pass against the wishes of Indians.
- The act gave enormous power to the govt. to repress political activity. It allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
- On 6th April 1919, Gandhi launched a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt act it started with a ‘Hartal‘.
- People support this in various cities shops were shut down and the worker in Railway went on strike.
- The Britisher started arresting local leaders.
- Mahatma Gandhi was ban from entering Delhi.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre(v.imp)
- On 10th April 1919, the police fired upon a peaceful procession in Amritsar.
- People agitated and started attacking Britisher.
- Martial law was imposed in Amritsar and command of the area was given to general Dyer.
- On 13th April 1919, the day on which Baisakhi is celebrated in Punjab a disgraceful Jallianwala Bagh massacred took place.
8 The people came to participate in the fair in Jallianwala Bagh.
- It was enclosed from all sides with a narrow entry point.
- General Dyer blocked the existing point and opened fire on the crowd.
- Hundred of people were kill in this incident.
- Public reaction to the incident took a violent turn in many north Indian town.
- The govt. was quite brutal in its response.
- The situation became violent.
- To stop the Rowlatt act Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi call off the Rowlatt act movement?
- On 13th April 1919, the Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.
- After many North Indian people (crowd) come on the street.
- They ever strike, clashes with the police, and attached on the govt. building.
- Govt. also responded with brutal repression to terrorize people.
- Sataygrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the street, and do salaam(salute) to officer, and People were flagged.
- The village around Gujranwala in Punjab now in Pakistan was bombed.
- Seeing violence spread Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.
- Ottoman Turkey was badly defeated in the first world war.
- There was a rumor about a harsh peace treaty like to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor who was the spiritual head of the Islamic world(the Khilafat).
- A Khilafat Committee was form in Bombay in March 1919 to defend the Khilafat.
- There was a young leader like the brother Muhammad Ali & Shaukat Ali.
- They also wanted Mahatma Gandhi to take up the cause to build a United mass action.
- This issue gave him the opportunity to bring the Hindus and Muslims on a common platform.
- At the Calcutta session of the congress in September 1920, a resolution was pass to launch a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and also for swaraj.
- The non-cooperation-Khilafat movement began in January 1921.
- Several social groups with their individual objective participated in this movement.
- All of them supported the swaraj but the term had different meanings for different people.
The Non-Cooperation Movement in India
- The movement started with significant participation from the middle class in the cities.
- Thousand of the student left govt. controlled school and college, the headmaster and teacher resigned and the lawyer gave up their legal practices.
- Foreign goods were boycott liquor shop picketed and foreign cloth burnt in a huge bonfire.
- The impact of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs. 102cr. to Rs. 57cr.
The Effect of Non-cooperation on the Economic Front
- Foreign goods were boycott.
- Liquor shop picketed and foreign goods burnt in huge bonfires.
- The import of foreign goods halved between 1921 and 1922 from Rs. 102cr. to Rs. 57cr.
- In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign cloth.
- It helps in the production of Indian textile and hand loop.
Why non-cooperation movement slowdown in non-cooperation?
- Khadi was more expensive than mill-made cloth the poor people could not afford to by Khadi.
- There was a lack of alternative institutions (school. collage) such an institution was slow to come up.
- Students and teachers began coming back to school similarly to a lawyer back to their jobs.
Non-Cooperation Movement in Country Side(Awadh)
- Here the peasant movement led by Baba Ramchandra. He was a sannyasi who had earlier worked in Fiji as labor on contact.
- Here the movement was against Talukadars and Landlords.
- The peasant demand:-
– Reduction of revenue,
– Abolition of a beggar,
– Social boycott of the oppressive landlord.
- In many places, Nai-Dhobi Bandhs were organized by panchayat to oppose oppressive landlord barber and washerman stopped giving their service to them.
- In June 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru going around(tour) the village in Awadh.
- He tried to understand the problem of a peasant.
- Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up by October it was head by Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra.
- Within a month 300 branches had been set up in the village around the region.
- Congress supported the movement at Awadh, but congress was unhappy with the way they(peasant) developed their movement.
- In 1921, the house of Talukdars and merchants were attached Bazar was looted and grain hoard was taken over.
- At many places, people stopped paying rent by carrying forward the name of the Mahatma Gandhi.
Non-Cooperation Movement by Tribal (imp.)
- Tribal peasant gave up their own interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of swaraj.
- In the early 1920s, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the Gudem hill of Andhra Pradesh. It was a movement that was not approve by congress.
- Here the movement led by Alluri Sita Rama Raju.
- The problem of the tribal:-
– Prevented from entering the forest to graze cattle, to collect fruit and wood fuel,
– Govt. forced them to do began for road construction.
- Their leader Alluri Sita Rama Raju led the movement and he claimed that he had some supernatural power like:-
- He could make an accurate astrological prediction and heal people.
- He could survive even the shot of a bullet.
- The rebel considered him as the messenger of God.
- Raju was impress by the non-cooperation movement and talked about the greatness of Gandhiji.
- He asked people to wear khadi and stop drinking.
- He further said that India could attain freedom only through violence and not by non-violence.
- The Gudem revolutionaries:-
– The attack upon the police station,
– Tried to kill Britisher officer,
– And continued Guerrilla struggle to achieve swaraj.
- Raju was arrested and executed in 1924 and after he becomes a folk hero.
Swaraj in Plantation
- The platform worker in Assam was not permitted to leave the tea garden without permission as per the Inland emigration act of 1859.
- When the news of the non-cooperation movement spread to the plantation, many workers began to defy the authority.
- They(plantation workers) left the plantation and headed toward their home.
- They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.
- They were caught because of a railway and streamer strike and they caught and beaten up by the police.
After the Chauri-Chaura incident in 1922 at Gorakhpur Gandhi called off the non-cooperation movement.
Why in Feb 1922 Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation movement?
- The non-cooperation movement turned violent in places.
- After, Chauri-Chaura incident Gandhiji withdraw the movement.
- He thought that satyagraha is needed to be properly trained for mass struggle.
- Many leaders within the congress now tried of mass struggle and wanted to participate in the election of the provincial council.
- They felt that it was important to oppose British policy within the council and these councils were not fully democratic.
- The old leader like C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the swaraj party (within the congress) and began to argue for a return to council politics.
- The younger leader like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose was in favor of more Radical mass agitation and pressed for full independence.
What were the two factors which shaped Indian politics toward the late 1920s?
- The first was the effect of worldwide economic depression.
- And the second was a fall in agriculture prices form 1926 to 1930.
- Due to this demand for agricultural goods fell and export declined it was difficult for a peasant to sell them and pay revenue tax.
Simon Commission (imp.)
- The new Tory govt. in Britain constituent the statutory commission.
- This commission was head by Sir-John-Simon.
- Aim of Simon commission:-
– To examine the functioning of the constitutional system in India,
– And suggest changes to it.
- The Indian opposed this because all the member of this commission was Britisher, there was no single Indian member.
- The Simon commission arrived in India in 1928.
- It was greeted with the slogan “GO BACK SIMON”.
- All parties in the movement(congress + Muslim league).
- In October 1929, Lord Irwin announced a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for Indian but the timing is not good.
- He also offered to hold a round table conference(1st) to discuss the future of the constitution.
- But the Congress leader was not happy with this and they did not participate in it.
- The liberal and moderate were in favor of the dimension status offered by Britisher but they were losing their influence within congress.
- In December 1929, the Lahore congress was headed by Jawaharlal Nehru the resolution of Purna Swaraj was passes in it.
- It declared 26th January 1930, as the independence day and gave the call to people to take the pledge to struggle for complete independence.
- But it was not support by the public.
The Salt March & Beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement(6th April 1930)
- Gandhiji thought that salt could be a powerful symbol to unite the nation.
- On 31st January 1930, he sent a letter to viceroy Irwin with 11 demands.
- Some of the demand was of general interest and there were specific demands also from industrialists & peasant.
- The abolition of salt tax was one of the demands.
- The letter was an ultimatum in one way, if the demand were not fulfilled by 11th March, congress would launch a civil disobedience movement.
- Irwin ignored to negotiate so Gandhiji started his famous salt march on 12th March 1930 accompanied by 78 volunteers.
- They walked for 24 days to cover the distance of 240 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi. Many people joined the march.
- On 6th April 1930, the reached the coastal area of Dandi(Gujarat) and ceremonially violated the law manufacturing salt by boiling seawater.
- This was the beginning of the civil disobedience movement.
Participation of people in civil disobedience movement.
- People actively participated in the civil disobedience movement.
- People refused to cooperate with Britisher (as in the non-cooperation movement).
- Thousand of people across the country broke the salt la, manufactured salt & demonstrated in front of govt. salt factorize.
- The foreign cloth was boycott and liquor shop was picket.
- Peasant refused to pay revenue and Chaukidari taxes, village official resigned.
- Forest people violated forest law by going into the reserved forest to collect wood & graze cattle.
Why Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil disobedience movement?
- Britisher was worried about the development of the civil disobedience movement.
- They started arresting the congress leader one by one, this led to violent clashes in many places.
- Abdul Gaffar Khan (known as Frontier Gandhi) was arrested in April 1930 angry crowd demonstrated in the street of Peshawar facing police firing many were killed.
- A month later Mahatma Gandhi was arrested than the industrial worker in Sholapur attacked the symbol of British rules such as police post municipal building law court and railway station.
- Peaceful satyagraha was attack on women and children were beaten and 1,00,000 people were arrested.
- In such a situation Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.
2nd Round Table Conference
- During the civil disobedience, the movement situation became violent so Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.
- He entered or signed a pact with Irwin on 5th March 1931(Gandhi Irwin pact).
- As per the pact, Gandhi Agreed to participate in the round table conference in London.
- British govt. agreed to release the political prisoner.
- Gandhi went to London in December 1931, but the negotiation was broke down Gandhiji returned back to India with disappointment.
- When Gandhiji back to India, he found that the Britisher began a new cycle of repression.
- Gaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail and Congress was declare illegal.
- Many measures was taken to prevent the meeting, demonstration, and boycott.
- Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the civil disobedience movement.
- By 1934, the movement had lost its momentum.
How farmer saw the disobedience movement?
1. Farmer:- In the countryside, the rich and poor people both participated in the movement.
A. Rich farmer
- In the countryside, rich peasants like the Patidar of Gujarat and jat of the U.P. were active in the movement.
- They participated in the movement because they suffered the most due to economic depression and fall in agriculture prices.
- Their cash income disappeared and they were not able to pay the govt. revenue tax.
- They demanded a reduction in revenue but the govt. refused to do.
- This led to widespread resentment between the people.
- The rich peasant participated in the movement, they participated in the boycott program and refused to pay revenue.
B. Poor farmer
- Poor peasant also participated in his movement.
- They demanded lowering the revenue and unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.
- Because due to economic depression and fall in agriculture prices, their income dwindled they found it difficult to pay rent.
- Congress was unwilling to support the ‘no rent’ campaign in most places. So the relationship between poor farmers & congress was not good.
2. Business classes:-
- They actively participated in the movement.
- Their demand was protected against the import of foreign goods and protection against the rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio.
- Due to the above, the business classes were unable to expand their business.
- They formed the Indian industrial & commercial congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industries(FICCI) in 1927.
- The leader was prominent industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla.
- They supported the civil disobedience movement when first launched.
- They provide financial assistance to the congress.
- For them swaraj means no colonial restriction on business, trade & industry flourish without constrain.
- After, the failure of the round table conference, they were no longer interested in the movement.
- When the movement was relaunch they did not participate in the movement.
How industrial worker saw the disobedience movement?
- They did not participate in the civil disobedience movement in large numbers (except in Nagpur).
- Because their demand was against industrialists for low wages and poor working conditions.
- But congress ignored the demand of worker so they felt alienated.
- But in spite of that, some workers participated in the civil disobedience movement by boycotting of foreign goods e.g. Railway worker strike in 1930 and dockworker in 1932.
- In 1930 thousand of a worker in Chota Nagpur, tin mines participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
How women participant saw the disobedience movement?
- Women actively participated in this movement.
- Most of the women were from high caste families in the urban area and from rich households in rural areas.
- Thousand of women came out to listen to Gandhiji during his salt march.
- They participated in protest made salt and robbed foreign cloth and liquor shop and many of them went to jail.
- However, this changed the role of women did not change their position in society.
- According to Gandhiji, women are meant to look after domestic work and be good mothers & wives.
- For a long time, congress was hesitated to give any position of authority to women within the organization.
- Congress was just keen only on the symbolic presence of women.
The Limit of the Civil-Disobedience Movement
1. Dalit participation in the movement(depressed classes):-
- Initially, congress ignored the Dalit, because congress did not want to go against the conservative high caste Hindus.
- But Mahatma Gandhi did a lot to improve the condition of Dalit in society.
- He called the Dalit ‘Harijan'(the children of God).
- Gandhi declared that without removing the practice of untouchability, swaraj could not be achieved.
- He organized satyagraha to give entry to them in the temple, provide them access to the public well, road and school.
- Many Dalit leaders wanted a different political solution to their problems.
- They demanded a reserved seat in the educational institutions and separate electorates for Dalit.
- Dalit participated in the civil disobedience movement was limit, especially in Mahabharat, Nagpur.
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organized the Dalit in the depressed classes association in 1930.
- He clashed with Mahatma Gandhi in the second round table conference on the issue of a separate electorate for Dalit.
- When Britisher(govt.) granted Ambedkar’s demand Gandhi began a fast unto death.
- Finally, Ambedkar had to accept Gandhiji’s position.
- It resulted in the signing of the Poona pact of September 1932.
- It made (Poona pact) provision that reserved seats for the depressed classes in the provincial and legislative council.
- But the voting was to be done by the general electorate.
2. Muslim Participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement:-
- Muslim participation in the movement was limited.
- After the decline, the non-cooperation & khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims became alienated from congress.
- From the mid-1920s congress was more visibly associated with the openly Hindu religion group like the Hindu Mahasabha.
- The relation between Hindu & Muslim worse.
- The Congress & Muslim league tried to renegotiate and alliance.
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah was an important leader of the Muslim league.
- He was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates for Muslims.
- But he wanted a reserved seat for Muslims in the central assembly and representation in proportion of the population in Muslim dominated province(Punjab, Bengal).
- But the all parties conference in 1928, M.R. Jayakar of Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed the effort at compromise.
- Many Muslim leaders were concerned about the identity of Muslims in the Hindu majority country.
Which of the following factor helped them to unite?
1. United struggled:-
- The major important factor responsible for creating a sense of nationalism among Indians was a united struggle against the Britisher.
2. Nation depicted in the image(Bharat Mata):-
- The identity of the nation is symbolized in a figure or in which people can identify the nation.
- The image of Bharat Mata was the pictorial representation of the motherland.
- The images were first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
- In 1870 he wrote Vande Mataram(the national flag).
- This was included in the novel ‘Ananda Math’ was sung during the swadeshi movement in the Bengal.
- The different artists portrayed the images of Bharat Mata in their own way.
- Famous artist Abanindranath Tagore created the famous painting of Bharat Mata, features were an ascetic figure & she is calm composed, divine, and spiritual.
- After its different painter gave many different images of Bharat Mata(mother).
3. The revival of Indian folklore:-
- Many nationalist leaders took the help of folk tales to spread the idea of nationalism.
- It was believed the folk tales revealed the true picture of traditional culture.
- In late 19th century, India nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk song and legend.
- This was done to promote the traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by a western power.
- In Bengali, Rabindranath Tagore started collecting ballads, nursery rhyme, and myth and led the movement for the revival of folk culture.
4. National flag(icon & symbol):-
- As the national movement develop nationalist leaders use different icon & symbol for unifying people for struggle such as national flags.
- The national flag which we see today has evolved through various stages.
- A tricolor(red, green, yellow) was used during the swadeshi movement. There were eight lotus on it that depicted the eight provinces of British India.
There was a crescent moon on the flag which represented Hindu & Muslim.
- It was also a tricolor(red, green, white) & there was a spinning wheel in the center.
5. Reinterpretation of history:-
- The Britisher saw that Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves.
- Many Indians felt that the British had given a different interpretation of Indian history.
- Indians started writing about the achievement of India in the post when art, architecture, science, mathematics, religion, law, philosophy, craft, and trade had flourished in the nation.
About- Nationalism in India class 10 notes
In Nationalism in India class 10 notes we cover so many topics like Simon Commission, Civil Disobedience Movement, Non-Cooperation Movement, 2nd round table conference and so many other topics we cover in Nationalism in India class 10 notes. And if you like Nationalism in India class 10 notes then please give valuable feedback in the comment box(below).
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