Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 5 | Geography
Introduction:- In Natural Vegetation and Wildlife class 9 notes we read about Natural vegetation, Tropical evergreen & deciduous forest, Medical Plants and so many other topics we read in Natural Vegetation and Wildlife class 9 notes. So let’s start it.
What is Natural Vegetation?
- It refers to a plant community that has grown naturally without human help and has been left untouched by a human for a long time this is also called ‘Virgin vegetation’.
Flora denotes to plant community & The species of animals are known as ‘fauna’.
Data related to Natural Vegetation & Wildlife
- Our country India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world.
- There are 47,000 plant species in India about the 10th position of the world.
- There are about 15,000 flowering plants about 6% of the world total number of flowers.
- And there are 90,000 species of animals in India.
- The country has about 2,000 species of birds about 13% of the world’s stock.
- It also shares 5 to 8% of world amphibians reptiles and mammals.
Fact:- According to India state of forest report 2011 the forest cover in India is 21.05%.
Why has India a rich heritage of Flora & Fauna?
This is becasue some following factor below:-
- Land:- Land affects the natural vegetation directly or indirectly. We found different types of natural vegetation in Mountain, Plateau, and Plains. Fertile land is useful for agriculture. In rough terrains, grassland and woodland area develop which gives shelter to various variety of wildlife.
- Soil:- The soil also varies from place to place different types of soil provide the basis of different types of vegetation. Like sandy soil- Cactus & Thorny bushes. In wet marshy deltaic soil, we get Mangrove & Deltaic vegetation. On hills slops, we found Conical trees(vegetables).
- Temperature:- Temperature along with humidity in air and soil also affect the Natural Vegetation::-
Vegetation -Tropical -Sub tropical -Temperate -Alpine
Average temperature -above 24 degree C -17 to 24 degree C -7 to 17 degree C -below 7 degree C
Temperature in January -Above 18 degree C -10 to 18 degree C -1 to 10 degree C -below -1 degree C
What is Photo-period(sunlight)?
- India lies in the tropical and Subtropical zone. The trees grow faster with longer duration of sunlight.
- In the southern slopes of Himalayas, we get thick Natural Vegetation in comparison to the Northern slopes of Himalayas.
What is Precipitation(rainfall)?
- In India the Monsoon season from June to September. The areas of Northeast state and western ghat receive heavy rainfall.
- So we get thick natural vegetation there. Areas like Jammu & Kashmir and Rajasthan we get less rainfall here the Natural Vegetation is not very thick.
What is the Ecosystem?
- All the plants and animals in areas are interdepend and inter-relation to each other in their physical environment called the Ecosystem.
- Ecosystems are the foundation of the ‘Biosphere’ and maintain the natural balance of the earth.
A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animals life is called a biome.
Types of Vegetation:-
- Tropical Evergreen Forest,
- Tropical Decidous Forest,
- Tropical Thorn Forest and Shrubs,
- Mountain Forest,
- Mangrove Forest.
1. Tropical Evergreen Forest:-
- These forests are found in heavy rainfall areas. With annual rainfall is more than 200cm. Here the height of trees is 60meter or even more.
- Different types of Vegetation found there like trees, shrubs, creepers. There are no definite times for trees to shed their leaves.
- To these forest appears green all the years. Trees found here like ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber, Cinchona.
- Animals found there like elephant, monkey, lemur, deer, One-Horned Rhinoceros(found in West Bengal and Assam).
- Birds are found there like bats, sloths, scorpions, and snails are found here.
2. Tropical Deciduous Forest:-
- These are the most widespread forests in India. These are also called monsoon forest.
- The average rainfall in these areas is between 200cm to 70cm.
- On the basis of availability of water, these forests are divided into two parts first is moist forest and the second is dry Decidous forest.
- The trees here shed their leaves in summer for six to eight weeks.
2.1 Moist forest:-
- These areas receive rainfall between 200cm to 100cm.
- These forests exist mainly in eastern parts of the country like Northeast states, foothills of Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa, Chattisgarh, Eastern slopes of the Western ghat.
- Teak is the most important tree here.
2.2. Dry Deciduous forest:-
- These forests receive rainfall between 100 to 70cm.
- These forests found in Rainer part of Peninsular, Bihar, U.P.
- Common animals found here like lion, tiger, pig, deer, elephant.
3. The Thorn Forest & Shrubs
- These regions receive less than 70cm of rainfall.
- Thorny bushes and cactus found there.
- This type of vegetation found in the Northwestern part of the country like Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, and some parts of western U.P. & Haryana.
- Plant species like acacias, palms, euphorbias, cacti.
- Feature of trees:-
- Trees are scattered and have long.
- Roots are penetrating deep into the soil to get moisture.
- The stems are succulent to conserve water.
- Leaves are thick and small to minimize evaporation.
- Common animals like rats, tiger, camels, rabbits, lion, wolf, fox, wild ass, horses.
4. Mountain Forest
- These forests are found in mountain areas. The vegetation in these areas changes according to height.
- Types of trees:-
- Between the height of 1000 & 2000meter evergreen broadleaf trees are found like oaks, chestnuts.
- Between the height of 3600 meters- the temperate forest is found(pine, deodar, silver, fir).
- At the height of 3600meters- Alpine vegetation of temperate grassland is found(silver fix, junipers, pines, birches).
- The common animals like Kashmir stay, Wild Sheep, Jack, Yak, Squirrels, spotted Deer, Rabbit, Tibetan antelope, snow Leopard, bear.
5. Mangrove Forest
- These forests are found in coastal areas, influenced by tides. Here the roots of trees are submerged under the water.
- Areas like Ganga, Kaveri, Mahanadi, Godavari are cover with this vegetation.
- Sundari trees are common there. Other trees like palm, coconut, agar.
- Royal Bengal tiger is a famous animal. Other animals like turtles, crocodiles, snakes, etc.
Medical Plants & Benefits:-
- Sarpgandha:- Used for blood pressure(found in India only)
- Jamun:- The juice is use for digestive purpose seeds and also use for controlling diabetes.
- Arjun:- Juice are use for earache.
- Babool:- Gum is use for tonic.
- Neem:- It has high antibiotic properties.
- Tulsi plant:- Use for cough and cold.
- Kachnar:- Used for asthma and ulers.
Fact:- These are 90,000 animals species found in India. The country has 2000 species of birds. These are 2546 species of fish(12% of world stock).
The Animals found in India in different places:-
- Elephant:- These animals are mammals. They are found in the hot wet forest of Assam, Karnataka, and Kerala.
- One-horned rhinoceros:- They live in Marshy and Swampy areas. Found in Assam & West Bengal.
- Wild ass and camels:- Found in arid areas of Rann of Kachchh and Thar desert.
- Tigers and lions:- India is the only country where both tigers and lions are found. The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the Gir forest in Gujarat. Tigers are found in the forest of Madhya Pradesh and Sunderbans of West Bengal and Himalayan region. Leopard, tiger & lion are of the cat family.
- Himalayas region:- Yok, the shaggy horned wild ox, the Tibetan antelope, blue she wild sheep, snow leopard and red panda found in their region.
- Rivers lakes & coastal areas:- Turtle, crocodiles, and gharials are found.
Fact:- Wildlife protection act was implemented in 1972 in India.
Need for conservation of Flora & Fauna
- It provides medical plants, food, and animals we sea for our use.
- They also help us in drought power transportation meat eggs etc.
- The fish provides us nutritive food. Many insects help in the pollination of crops and fruit trees.
- Using insecticides and pesticides kill these insects. Every species has a role to play in the ecosystem.
- Due to excessive use or exploitation of plant & animals by humans disturbed the ecosystem.
- So conservation is necessary.
- Data- 1300 plants are endangered, 20 species are extinct of plants, the same case of animals also.
- Causes of their exploitation:-
- Hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes.
- Pollution due to chemicals & industrial waste acid deposits.
- Introduction of Alien species(non-native to an ecosystem)- Reckless cutting of forest to bring land under cultivation & inhabitation. All these cause imbalance.
Steps were taken by the government to protect flora and fauna:-
- 18 biosphere reserves have been set up. Financial and technical assistance is provided to many botanical gardens by the government since 1992.
- Project tigers, project rhino, project great Indian bustards, and many development projects have been introduced.
- 103 national parks, 535 wildlife sanctuaries, and zoological gardens are set up to take care of natural hereditary.
- During winters, birds such as Siberian crane come in large numbers.
- The place where the come is Rann of Kachchh.
- It is a place where the desert merges with the sea.
- Flamingo(bird) come there are build thousand of the nest and raise their young ones.
About- Natural Vegetation and Wildlife class 9 notes
In Natural Vegetation and Wildlife class 9 notes, we cover so many important topics like the Need for conservation of Flora & Fauna, Medical Plants & Benefits, Tropical evergreen forest, What is Natural vegetation and so many other topics we read in this notes I hope you like Natural Vegetation and Wildlife class 9 notes if like then please give your feedback in comment box(below).
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