Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 2 | Geography

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Physical Features of India Class 9 notes

Introduction:- I know that you searching for complete notes of Physical Features of India chapter that are very easy to learn, easy to understand, and also important question contains. So you visit the right place in this article we cover every topic from your NCERT Geography- Physical Features of India. So let’s start our Physical Features of India chapter with a simple question- WHAT IS THEORY OF TECTONICS PLATE?

What is the “Theory of Plate Tectonics”?

  • It is the theory that is used by scientists to explain the formation of physical features of the earth.
  • According to thin theory, these are seven major and minor plates.
  • In tectonics plates there are three types of movement:-
    • Convergent boundary,
    • Divergent boundary,
    • Transform boundary.

Convergent boundary

  • When some plates come toward each other they form the convergent boundary.
  • The activity involved is:- Folding (creation of mountain).

Divergent boundary

  • When some plates more away from each other they form divergent boundaries.
  • The activity involved is:- Faulting(creation of valleys).

Transform boundary

  • When two plates pass each other horizontally they form a transform boundary.
  • The activity involved is:- Volcanoes.
Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes

Formation of Himalayas

  • Earth was a single land called ‘Pangea’.
  • Due to conventional current, the landmass Pangea divided into two equal parts:-
    • Angara land
    • Gondwana land
    • ➥ The Angara land split(divided) into- Asia, Europe, North-America.
    • ➥ Gondwana land split into- India, Australia, South-Africa, South-America, Antarctica.
  • After separating from Gondwana land, Indo-Australian plates more toward the north.
  • In the north, it collides with Eurasian plates.
  • There was a Tethys sea. In between Eurasian plates and the Indo-Australian plate full of sedimentary rocks.

Formation of Northern Plain

  • When the Himalayas uplift out of the Tethys Sea, the northern part of the peninsular plateau resulted in a large basin.
  • There were three rivers that helped in the formation of the northern plain.
    • Ganga
    • Brahmaputra
    • Indus
  • This area was deposited with silt(alluvial soil) carried by these rivers.
  • It becomes a flat land called the northern plain.
  • These plains are very fertile for cultivation.

Major physical feature division of India:-

Their are six physical features of India are:-

  1. The Himalayan mountain
  2. The Northern plain
  3. The Peninsular pleats
  4. The Indian desert
  5. The Coastal plain
  6. The Islands

1. The Himalayan mountain

  • The Himalayas is a geologically young mountain and it is toward the north of India.
  • It stretches from west to east direction from Indus to Brahmaputra river.
  • It forms an arc and its distance is 2400 kilometers.
  • It’s width varies and in Kashmir 400 kilometers.
  • in Arunachal Pradesh 150 kilometers.
  • It’s an altitudinal variation(hight)- the eastern half is greater than the western half.
  • The Himalayas is divided on the basis of Longitudinal division:-
    • Himadri(inner or greater Himalayas).
    • Himachal(lesser Himalayas).
    • Shiwalik(outer Himalayas).

Himadari(great Himalayas)

  • The average height of peaks is 6000meter
  • It is northernmost range of Himalayas
  • Famous peaks in it:- Mount Everest, Kamet, Namsha Barwa, K2
  • This part is full of granite and it is a snowbound area.
  • A number of glaciers are found there.

Himachal(lesser himalayas)

  • It is situated toward the south of Himalayas(Himadri range).
  • The average height of peaks is 3700meter to 4500meter.
  • The average width of the mountain is 50kilometer.
  • It includes the following range:- Pir Panjal range(longest range), Dharla Dhar, Mahabharat range
  • This range is famous for hill station:- Kullu valley, Spiti valley

Shiwaliks(outer himalayas)

  • It is the outermost range of the Himalayan.
  • The height of peaks varies between 900 to 1100meters.
  • Its width is 10-15kilometer and gravel and Allruium finds here.

What is ‘DUN’?

  • The longitudinal valley between Himanchal or Shivalik known as duns.
  •  Dun is a local word for valley, particularly an open valley in the Sivaliks or between the Sivaliks and higher Himalayan foothills.
  • Another valley in the Himachal region:-
    • Dehradun
    • Kotlidun
    • Paltidun

Division of Himalayas one the basis of the region from west to east(The part of himalayas lies between):-

a. Indus river and satluj river

b. Between satluj and kali river

c. Between kali and tista river

d. Tista river or dihang river

– Punjab Himalayas and Kashmir Himalayas

– Kumaon Himalayas

– Nepal Himalayas

– Assam Himalayas

What is Purvanchal or Eastern mountain?

  • The eastern Himalayas is known as purvanchal.
  • Here on the eastern boundary, the Brahmaputra river is following
  • Beyond the Dihang George the Himalayas bend sharply to the south they are known as Purvanchal hills or eastern hills.
  • There is a dense forest.
  • There are the following hills:- Patkai hills, Naga hills, Manipur hills, Mizo hills

2. Northern plain

  • The northern plates have been formed by three major river systems⇢ Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra.
  • The plains formed by Alluvial soil and its total area is 7 lakh sq. km.
  • The length of the plain is 2400 kilometers and breadth varies from 240 to 320 kilometers.
  • It’s a densely populated area and agriculturally it’s a very productive part of India.
  • Division of Northern plain:-
    • On the basis of the river system,
    • On the basis of variation in relief features.

⇢ Division on the basis of river system:-

  • On the basis of the river it is divided into three plain:-
    • Punjab plain
    • Ganga plain
    • Brahmaputra plain

Punjab plain

  • The western part of the northern plain is known as Punjab plain.
  • It is formed by Indus and its tributaries(Jhelum, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, Sutlej).
  • This section is dominated by Dobas.

Ganga plain

  • It is extended between Ghaggar and the Tista river.
  • It includes the region- Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal to its east.

Brahmaputra plain

  • It consists of the area of Assam.

⇢ Division of northern plain on the basis of variation in relief:-

  • On the basis of variation in relief feature it is divided into four regions:-
    • Bhabhar
    • Terai
    • Bhangar
    • Khadar


  • It’s a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 kilometer in width.
  • It is parallel to the slopes of the Shiwalik range.
  • The stream disappears in this region.


  • It is situated off the south of Bhabhar.
  • Streams(or river) reappear in this region.
  • It’s a wet swampy and marshy region.
  • These are dense forest and full of wildlife.


  • Bhangar is old alluvial soil and this soil is found from the river basin.
  • This soil is less fertile and not suitable for agriculture.


  • Khadar is a new alluvial soil and this soil is found close to the river basin.
  • This soil is fertile and suitable for agriculture.
Northern Plain

3. The Peninsular plateau

  • It is the composition of crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • It is formed by the drafting and breaking of Gondwana land.
  • The plateau has a broad and shallow valley and rounded hills.
  • Division of peninsular plateau into two-part:-
    • Central highlands
    • Deccan plateau

⇢ Central highland

  • It lies to the north of the Narmada river.
  • It covers the region of the Malwa plateau.
  • Vindhya range is situated to the south of central highland.
  • Aravali range is situated to the northeast of central highland.
  • It is westward extended toward Rajasthan.
  • The river is draining in the area:- Chambal, Sindh, betwa, and ken.
  • Eastward extension is called Bundelkand and Bagelkhand.
  • Chota Nagpur plateau situated toward the east.
  • Damodar River is draining in their area.

⇢ Deccan plateau

  • It is a triangular landmass.
  • It lies toward the South of the Narmada river.
  • Satpura range is situated toward the north of the Deccan plateau.
  • On its eastward extension, the following hills are situated Mahader, Kaimur, Maikal hills.
  • It is higher in the west.

4. Western ghat and Eastern ghat

Western ghat

  • It is parallel to the western coast.
  • The western ghat is higher than the eastern ghat.
  • The average elevation(height) of this ghat is 900 to 1000meter.
  • It is rain bounded region.
  • It’s height increases from north to south.
  • Highest peak- Annai Mudi(2695m), Duda Betta(2637m).

Eastern ghat

  • It lies parallel to the eastern coast.
  • It’s lower than the western ghat.
  • The average elevation of this ghat is 600meter.
  • It stretches from Mahanadi valley to the Nilgiris in the South.
  • It is discontinuous and disconnects by the river, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.
  • There rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
  • Mahendra Giri is the highest peak of this ghat(501meters).
  • Sherory and Javadi hills are located to the southeast.

4. The Indian desert

  • It lies towards the western margin of Aravali hills.
  • It is a sandy region and covered with dunes.
  • This region receives very low rainfall below 150mm per year.
  • It has an arid climate and low vegetation.
  • Streams appear in the rainy season but disappear’s summers.
  • Luni is the only river in their region.
  • Barchans(scent shaped dunes) cover the larger area.
  • Longitudinal dunes found near the Indo-Pakistan boundary.

5. The Coastal plain

Eastern coastal plain

  • It lies between the Bay of Bengal and eastern ghat and it is a wide plain.
  • It is divided into two parts:-
    • Northern circars(northern part)
    • Coromandel coast(southern part)
  • Riverlike Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri.
  • Chilika lake is also situated on this coastal plain.

Western coastal plain

  • It lies between the Arabian sea and western ghat.
  • It is a narrow plain and divided into three sections:-
    • Konkar coast- Northern part(Mumbai to Goa).
    • Kannad plain- Center stretch
    • Malabar coast- Southern part of the coast

Chilika is the largest seawater lake in India. It lies in Orissa state. It is lies to the south of the Mahanadi river delta.

6. Island

  1. Lakshadweep
  2. Andaman & Nicobar


  • It lies near the Malabar coast by Kerala in the Arabian sea.
  • It is small coral deposit.
  • Earlier, its name was Luccadive Minicoy and Amindive.
  • In 1973, these were named Lakshadweep island.
  • It covers an area of
  • Kavaratti Island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep.
  • It has great flora and fauna.
  • The Pitti island(uninhabited) has a bird sanctuary.

Andaman and Nicobar island

  • These are situated in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Andaman lies in the north and Nicobar in the south.
  • There are 572 islands.
  • Only 38 islands are inhabited.
  • It is believed that these islands are elevated positions of submarine mountains.
  • Nicobar is very near to equator.
  • There is a great diversity of flora and fauna.
  • It has a Naval base of the Indian navy.
  • Its southernmost point is Indira point.
  • It was submerged in the ocean during the tsunami in 2004.

What is Corals island?

  • These are short-lived micro-organisms.
  • They lived in colonies.
  • They flourish in shallow, mud-free, and warm waters.
  • They consist of calcium carbonate.
  • Their skeleton deposit from reefs.
  • Reefs are three kinds:-
    • Barrier reefs
    • Fringing reefs
    • Atolls reefs
  • Atolls are circular and house shoe-shaped reefs.

About- Physical Feature of India class 9 notes

In Physical Feature of India class 9 notes, we cover so many important topics like Formation of Northern Plain & Himalaya, The Himalayan mountain, Northern and coastal plain, Indian desert and so many other topics we read in this notes I hope you like Physical Feature of India class 9 notes if you like then please give your feedback in the comment box(below).

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