Population Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 6 | Geography

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Population Class 9 Notes

Introduction:- In Population class 9 notes we cover so many topics like the density of population, Birth & Death rate, Population growth, Literacy rates, and so many other topics we cover in Population class 9 notes. So let’s start it.

What is Population?

  • The number of a person living in a country estimated at a particular point of time.
  • In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science that entails the statistical study of populations.

Census about India

  • A census is an official enumeration done periodically:-
    ➜ It is held every 10 years.
    ➜ The first census held in the years 1872.
    ➜ The first complete census was held in 1881.
  • The census of India provides information about population regarding the following point:-
    ➜ Population size & distribution
    ➜ Population growth and processes of population change
    ➜ Characteristics or qualities of the population
Population Class 9 Notes
Population Class 9 Notes

Population Size and Distribution

  • India’s population size and distribute by numbers.
  • India’s population as March 2011 stood at 1.21billion which accounts for 17.5% of the world population.
  • And 1.21billion people have unevenly distributed over a country vast area off 3.28million sq. km. (it is 2.4% of the total world area).
  • According to the 2011 census data. It reveals that the U.P. with a population size of 199million people is the must population state of India.
  • Almost half of the Indians population gives in just five states these are U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan the biggest state in terms of the area has only 55% of the total population of India.

Reason for uneven distribution of population in India

India has uneven distribution of population due to uneven factor like:-

  • Low birth & high death rate areas.
  • Topography rugged terrain and unfavorable ultimate conditions are primarily responsible for climatic conditions are primarily responsible for the sparse population in a state like Rajasthan & hilly states.
  • Hilly dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall shallow, and less fertile soil are responsible for the lesser population.
  • The economical reason is also responsible for the uneven distribution of population in India because most people want to live in that area these are economically development.

India’s Population Distribution & Density

What is Density of Population?

  • The number of people living per square kilometer of the area is called population density.
  • Population density provides a better picture of the uneven distribution.
  • Population density is calculated as the number of people.
  • India is one of the most populated density countries in the world.
  • According to census 2011, India’s population density is 382sq. per person kilometer in west Bengal to only 13 people per sq. in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Assam and most of the peninsular states have moderate population densities.
  • The northern plain and Kerala in the south have very population densities because of the flat place with fertile soils and abundant rainfall.

Population growth and process of the population change

  • The population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing.
  • This is the influence of the interaction of the three processes namely Birth, death, and migration.

What is Population Growth?

  • The growth of population refers to the change in the numbers of an inhabitant of a country terrority during a specific period of the time say during the last ten years.
  • Such as change can be expressed in two ways first is an absolute number and the second is percentage change.
  • The absolute numbers added each year or decade is the magnitude of increase.
  • It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population from the later population it is referred to as the absolute increase.
  • The rate of the population increase is the other important aspect it is studied is percent per annum e.g. a rate increase 2% per annum means that in a given year there was an increase of two-person for every 100 people in the base population this is referred to as growth role.

Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

  • Since 198, however, the rate of growth started declining gradually during this period the birth rate declined rapidly.
  • 182million people were added to the total population in 1909 alone.
  • It is essential to realize that India has a very large population. When a low annual rate is applied to a very large population it yields a large absolute increase.
  • When more than a billion people increase even at a lower rate the total number also becomes very large for a country.
  • The declining trend of the growth rate is needed as a positive indicator of the efforts by birth control.
  • By the increasing of population, India may overtake China in 2015 to become the most populated country in the world.

Process of population change/growth:- There are three main processes of change of population birth takes death rate and migration.

Birth rates:- Birth rates are the number of live birth per thousand people in a 4years. It is a major component of growth because in India birth rate has always been higher than death rates.

Death rates:- Death rates are the number of death per thousand in a year the main causes of the growth of the rate of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates.

Migration:- The third component of population growth is migration. Migration is the movement of the people across regions and territories. Internal migration means a moment of people within a country and external migration means the movement of people between.


Population Class 9 Notes
Qualities of population

Characteristics or qualities of population like:-

  1. Age composition,
  2. Sex ratio,
  3. Literacy rates,
  4. Occupational structure,
  5. Health.
  1. Age composition:-
  • The Age composition of a population refers to the people in different age groups in a country. It is one of the most basic characters of a population.
    • To an important degree, a personage influence what he needs buys and his capacity to perform. The population of a nation is generally into three broad categories.
  • Children(generally below 15years):- They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education, and medical care.
  • Working-age(15-59 years):- They are economically unproductive and need to be they comprise the working population.
  • Aged(above 59years):- They can be economically productive through they may have retired they may be working voluntary but they are not be working available for employment through recruitment.
    • The percentage of children and the aged effect the dependency ratio because these groups are not producers.

2. Sex ratio:-

  • Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 100 males in the population.
  • The sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavorable to females.

3. Literacy rates:-

  • Literacy rates are a very important quality of a population obviously only on informed and educational citizens can make intelligent choices and undertaking research and development projects a low level of literacy is a serious obtained for economic improvement.
  • According to the census of 2011, a person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literacy. According to the census of 2011, India’s total literacy is 74.04%, 82% for males & 64.03% for females.

4. Occupational structure:-

  • The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure.
  • Occupational are generally classified as Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary.
    • Primary:- Primary activities include agriculture animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining, and gardening, etc.
    • Secondary:- Secondary activities include manufacturing industry building and construction work etc.
    • Tertiary:- Tertiary activities include transport communication commerce administration and other services.
  • Developed countries have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities.
  • In India, about 48% of the population is engaged in only agriculture.
  • About 20% and 30% of the population is engaged in the secondary & tertiary sectors.

5. Health:-

  • Health is an important component of population composition which affects the process of development.
  • The government has taken many steps to improve the health condition. It includes:-
    • Improvement in public health care service,
    • Safe drinking water,
    • Prevention of infectious diseases,
    • Application of modern medical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of ailments.
  • Area’s of major concern in health:-
    • Low per capita calories consumption,
    • Safe drinking water,
    • Sanitation facilities.

Fact:- Kerala has a sex ratio of 1058 females per 100 males Puducherry has 1001 females for every 521 females per 100 males and Haryana has just 861.


What is the advantage of having a healthy population?

The advantage of having a healthy population are:-

  • A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual.
  • He/she is able to realize his or her potential and plays an important role in social and national development.
  • It contributes move to the GDP. It helps to give innovative ideas. Productivity is increased.
Population Class 9 Notes
Adolescent population

What is Adolescent population?

  • Adolescence is a period in which a person is no longer a child and not get an adult. Such a person is grouped in a group of 10 to 19 years.
  • They are the most important resource for the future. A large number of adolescent girls suffer from anemia.
  • The adolescent girl has to be sensitized to the problem they comfort OR It consists of the age group of 10 to 19 years population and it also consists 1/5 of the total population.
  • Nutrition requirements of the adolescent are higher than normal children or adults.
  • In India, this age group suffers a deficiency in nutrition especially girls(suffered from anemia).
  • Their awareness can be improved through the spread of literacy and education among them.

What is the National Population Policy(NPP)?

  • The government of India initiated the compression family planning program in 1982.
  • The family welfare program has sought to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis.
  • The national population policy 2000 is a culmination of years of planned effect.

NPP 2000 and Adolescents

  • The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14years of age reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live birth achieving universal communication of children against all vaccine-preventable disease-promoting.

Significant feature of the NPP 2000:-

  • NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections by the population that held greater activities. It includes the following feature.
  • It called for programs that arm towards encouraging delayed marriage about the risks of unprotected sex making contraceptive service accessible affordance providing food supplement nutritional service, strengthening legal measure to present should marriage.
  • People are the nation’s most valuable resource a well educational healthy population provides potential power.

About- Population class 9 notes

In Population class 9 notes, we read about Birth & Death rate, Population growth & Density, Age composition Sex ratio and so many other topics we read in Population class 9 notes so read this completely and I hope you like this notes so please give your valuable feedback in the comment box(below).

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