Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes: [EASY to LEARN; 2020]
Introduction:- In Poverty as a Challenge class 9 notes we read about poverty and we see how poverty affects poor people in the world and also we see some scheme that introduces by the government. So let’s start it.
What is Poverty?
- It has been define as a situation in which a person fails to earn sufficient income to buy subsistence(daily need goods).
- Whenever we open the newspaper, or switch to a news channel, apart from the increasing rate of crime, there is one more thing that is common to almost every nation all over the world, poverty.
- In 1947, India gained independence from Great Britain. Its poverty rate at the time of British departure was at 70 percent.
Indicators of Poverty:-
- Lack of access to safe drinking water,
- Lack of job opportunity,
- Lack of access to health care,
- Illiteracy level,
- Child labor,
What is Social Exclusion?
- The poor had to live only in poor surroundings with other poor people.
- Social exclusion is a complex and multi-dimensional process.
- It involves the lack or denial of resources, rights, goods, and services, etc.
What is Vulnerability?
- Poverty is a measure that describes the greater probability of certain communities of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years.
- Vulnerability is not a sign of weakness and can be your greatest strength.
- The 4 types of Vulnerabilities found:-
- 1. Physical Vulnerability,
- 2. Economic Vulnerability,
- 3. Social Vulnerability,
- 4. Emotional Vulnerability.
Causes of Poverty
- The rapid Growth of Population:- Particularly among the poor population is considered a major cause of Indian poverty.
- Our agricultural sector has failed:- To generate many employment opportunities for farm laborers.
- Unequal distribution of land:- Due to which rural poor could not improve the way of livings.
- Social factors:- Lending money for social obligations like festivals and marriages forces the poor into dept.
- Increasing the prices:- Today people’s salary does not increase but the inflation rate increase rapidly. So also people face poverty like a problem.
Step Taken by the Government for Poverty Alleviation
These are basically programs addressing to the poor targeting anti-poverty:-
- Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana:- Its launched in 1993 to create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small-town for educated unemployed.
- Rural employment generation program:- Its launched in 1995 to self create employment opportunities in rural areas.
- Swam Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana:- It launched in 1999 aimed at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line.
- Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana:- Its launched in 2000.
- Antyodaya Anna Yojana:- It launched for the poorest of poor and elders.
- National food for work program:- It launched in 2004.
- National Rural employment guarantee act:- It passed in 2005, it provided 100 days of employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts.
What is? (read below)
Poverty:- The state of being extremely poor. It has been defined as a situation in which a person fails to earn sufficient income to buy subsistence(daily need goods)
Daily wages labor:- A worker who is paid for work on a daily basis. Minimum Wages in India are expected to reach 178.00 INR/Day by the end of 2020, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts’ expectations.
Challenge:- A call to someone to participate in a competitive situation or fight to decide who is superior in terms of ability or strength.
Income:- Money received especially on a regular basis for work or through investment.
Social exclusion:- Exclusion from the prevailing social system and its right and privileges typically as a result of poverty or the fact of belonging to a minority social group.
Vulnerability:- The quality or state of being exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed either physically or emotionally.
World Bank:- The world bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs.
Poverty line:- The estimated minimum level of income needed to secure the necessities of life. The international poverty line, which is currently $1.90 a day, is the threshold that determines whether someone is living in poverty.
Inequalities:- An instance of being unequal or any people who discriminate by other people and the people not get equal rights to like other people in their surroundings.
Rural Employment:- Is any activities occupation work business or service performed by rural people by force or for remuneration profit social or family gain in cash or kind including under a contract of hire written or oral expressed or implied and without regard to whether the service is performed on self-directed part time full time or casual basis.
Bank Credit:- Its the aggregate amount of credit available to a person or business from a banking institution. It’s the total amount of funds financial institutions provide to an individual or business.
Human Poverty:- Was an indication of the standard of living in a country developed by the united nation(UN) to complemented the Human Development Index(HDI) and was first reported as part of the Human Development Report in 1997.
Gender Discrimination:- Discrimination in terms of gender caste or any other aspect. Sexism can affect anyone, but it primarily affects women and girls.
Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India?
- The poverty line is estimated based on the consumption level in India.
- A person has basic needs which include a minimum level of food, cloth, educational and medical needs, etc.
- This minimum consumption is calculate in rupees and totally becomes the minimum income required to fulfill basic needs.
- A person is considered poor if their income level falls below the minimum level necessary to fulfill the basic needs.
Do you think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
- The present methodology is not appropriate it calculates the minimum subsistence level of living.
- It does not take into calculation whether the person has reasonable or decent like a life with access to education home, clean drinking water, etc.
- The cost of basic needs also varies among places so a common poverty line cannot be appropriate.
Describe Poverty trends in India since 1973?
- There has been a decline in poverty in India.
- The percentage of people living in poverty declined from 1973 to 1993 to 45%.
- This further declined to 37.2% from 2004 to 2005 and to about 21.9% from 2011 to 2012.
- The number of the poor has declined from 40.71 crore people in 2004-05 to 26.93 crore people in 2011-12.
Discuss the major reason for Poverty in India?
The major reason for poverty in India are:-
- There was a low level of economic development under the British colonial administration.
- The colonial government destroyed Indian industries and there was no form of development and when India gained its independence there was a large number of people in poverty.
- India experienced a high growth rate of population and low economic growth.
- This led to a larger population but with lower employment opportunities.
- This further restricted anti-poverty measures and a large part of the population remained in poverty.
- There has been unequal distribution of wealth in India certain caste and classes dominated land which led to a large number of groups who had no access to inherited wealth.
- This caused a spiral of poverty was by their future generation continued to remain in poverty.
About- Poverty as a Challenge class 9 notes
In Poverty as a Challenge class 9 notes, we talk about Indicators of poverty, human poverty, gender discrimination, Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana, the rapid growth of population, causes of poverty and so many other topics we read in this notes. So if you did not read Poverty as a Challenge class 9 notes then read now. And please give your feedback in the comment(comment below).
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