Power Sharing Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2020]
Introduction:- In Power Sharing class 10 notes we talk about the Belgium model, Power sharing, Ethnic composition of Sri Lanka and so many other topics we cover in Power Sharing Class 10 Notes. So let start it.
What is Power Sharing?
- Power-sharing is a term used to describe a system of govt. in which all major segment of society are provided a permanent share of power
- In this, the principal element of society is guarantee a place & influence in governance.
What is the ethnic composition of ‘BELGIUM’.
- Belgium is a small country in Europe and its area is smaller than the state of Haryana.
- It has its border with France, Netherlands, Germany, and Luxembourg.
- It has a population of little over one more, about half the population of Haryana.
- The country total population of 59% live in the flemish region and speak the Dutch language.
- Another 40% of people live in the Wallonia region and speak the french language.
- The remaining 1% of Belgium speak the German language.
- In the capital city, Brussels 80% of people speak french while 20% are dutch speaking.
- The main region of conflict between them was their economic development of french & dutch were poor.
Reason of Conflict in Belgium:-
- In the center, dutch have in the majority and force its will on the french and german speaking population.
- In the capital city, Brussels french were in majority both the side demanding control over Brussels.
- This could lead to a very merry partition of the country. The conflict was more series in Brussels.
What is the ethnic composition of ‘SRI LANKA’?
- Sri Lanka is an island nation and its a few km. of the southern coast of Tamil Nadu.
- It has about 2cr. the population is the same as Haryana.
- The Sinhala speaker forms the majority of the population. They consist of 74% of the total population.
- The Tamil speaker is 18% of the total population. They are concentrated in the north and east of the country.
- Among Tamil there are two subgroups:-
- Srilankan Tamil(13%)
- Indian Tamil(5%)
- The Tamil native of the country is called Srilankan Tamil(13%).
- The Tamil who was brought as indentured labor from India by Britisher to work on the plantation is called the Indian Tamil(5%).
- Most of the Sinhala speaking people are Buddhist, while most of the Tamil are Hindu & Muslim.
- There are about 7% Christian who are both Tamil & Sinhala.
What is Majoritarianism?
- A belief that a majority community should be able to rule in a country in which over way it wants by ignoring the wishes and needs of the minority.
Mention any four-step which were taken by the Srilanka government to achieve Majoritarianism.
- In the 1956 act was passed, it made Sinhala as the only official language of Srilanka and the Tamil language was disregarded.
- The govt. followed preferential policies that forward Sinhala applicant for university position and govt. jobs.
- According to the new constitution to the state shall protest and faster Buddhism. And rejecting the proposal of Tamils.
Why Sri Lanka Tamil feel alienated?
- Srilanka Tamil felt that no political parties(led by the Buddhist Sinhala leader) were aware of their language and culture.
- They felt that the constitution and govt. policy denied them equal political rights.
- They were discriminate against in getting jobs and in educating on appartonsition.
- As a result, the relationship between the Sinhala Tamil communities became worse.
Describe these demands of the Srilanka Tamil. How did they struggle for their independence?
- Recognition of Tamil as an official language.
- Regional opportunity.
- Equal opportunity in security job and education but their demand was denied by Srilanka.
Struggle for Independence:-
- They formed several political parties.
- In the 1980’s they started demanding independent Tamil Nadu(state) in the northern and eastern post of Srilanka.
- The Sinhala govt. tried to suppress their activities this led to a civil war.
Impact of Civil War:-
- Thousand of people in both communications have been kill.
- Many were forced to leave the country and lost their livelihood.
- Civil war has caused a terrible let back to their economic development, education, and health.
Illustrate three element of Belgium model of accomodation?
- Equal number of minister for both group in central government:-
- The Belgium constitution describes the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers.
- No single community can make the decision unilaterally.
2. More power to state government:-
- Many power of central govt. have been giving to state govt. of the region of the country.
- The state govt. are not subordinate(answerable) to the central govt.
3. Equal representation in capital city Brussels:-
- A separated govt. has been set up at Brussels(capital of Belgium) in which both the communities have equal representation(dutch & french).
4. Formation of community government:-
- A post from central and state govt. these in the third kind of govt. called community govt.
- It’s elected by people of Belgium like dutch, french, and german speaking.
- This govt. has the power regarding cultural, education, and language-related issues.
“Power sharing is the very Spirit of Democracy” Explain just by the statement?
These are two reasons which tell the why power sharing is necessary:-
1. Prudential reason
2. Moral reason
1. Prudential reason:-
- The prudential reason is based on prudence or careful calculation of gain and losses. Ex:- The major gain was peace in Belgium. The major has loss was a civil war in Sri Lanka.
- Prudential reason help to reduce group.
- In short-run majority rule was an attractive option but in the long run, it undermines the unity of the nation.
- The rule of majority is not just oppressive for a minority but it’s destructive to the majority as well as.
2. Moral reason:-
- The moral reason involves the sharing of power with those who are affected by the exercise.
- Moral reason tells that people have a right to be consolidated on how they are to be governed because of a Democratic government, Local government is an example of Moral reason.
Difference between Sri Lanka and Belgium power sharing?
→ Sri Lanka:-
- Power is concentrated in the hand of the majority(Sinhala).
- They passed an act of 1956. It established Sinhala supremacy.
- The act of 1956 was not accept by the minority(Srilanka Tamil).
- It resulted in a conflict between Sinhala and Tamil.
- It breaks down the unity of the country the minority demotivated another state north & eastern part of the country.
- The decision regarding religion & language is taken by the central govt. in favor of Sinhala.
- Power is distributed equally among both major communities(dutch, french).
- The adopted Belgium model which gone equal power to both the communities.
- Belgium model was majority accepted by the citizen.
- It maintains peace in the country and it accommodates as strength the unity of the country.
- The decision regarding religion and language is taken by community govt. in favor of all.
Interest group:- Group of trader, farmer, businessman, farmer they have also share in govt. power by participated in govt. committee and influence the decision-making process.
Explain the major term of Power Sharing?
Power-sharing:- It’s a system of governance in which power is shared among different organs of govt. (legislative, executive, judiciary) govt. at different levels control state or local govt., army different, serial group, political parties, and pressure group, etc.
Need for Power Sharing:-
i. It help to reduce the possibility of conflict.
ii. Power sharing is the spirit of democracy.
Major form of Power Sharing:-
- Power-sharing among different Organs of the government.
- Power-sharing at different levels.
- Power-sharing among the different Social groups.
- Power-sharing among Political parties, Pressure groups, and Movement.
1. Power Sharing Among Government at Different Organ:-
- In a democracy, power is shared among different organs of the govt. like legislative, executive, and judiciary this is called horizontal distribution of power-sharing.
- Because it allows different organs of the govt. placed at the same level to exercise different power.
- Under this kind of power-sharing different organs cannot exercise unlimited power.
- Each organ has its own power.
- It can also check the power of others (check system of balance).
- It resulted in a balance of power among the various.
Legislative → Executive → Judiciary
2. Power Sharing Among Government at Different Level:-
- The government the entire country is called the Central government as Union government.
- The government for the state is called the State government (provincial as regional government)
- Belgium power is shared among different levels but in Srilanka it not so.
- These are somewhere power is showed among Local government also called municipality or panchayat.
- There is also called vertical division of power.
Indian govt. ↓ Central govt. ↓ State govt. ↓ Local govt.
3. Power Sharing Among Different Social Group:-
- Social group like religious group(Hindu, Sikh, Muslim, Christian) linguistic group(base on language) women, weaker section(SC, ST).
- Power can also be shared with various social groups.
- ‘Community govt.’ is Belgium is a good example of this arrangement.
- In some countries weaker sections of society SC, ST is represented in legislative & administrative by some legal arrangement.
- This section is offered reserved constituency in assembly.
- This type of arrangement gives space to the weaker section in government and administration.
- Otherwise, that different social group does feel alienated from the government.
- This method gives the minority a fair change in government.
4. Power Sharing Among Political Parties, Pressure Group & Movement:-
- Power can also share political parties, pressure groups.
- Because they influence or control those who are in power.
- Citizen chooses any tender from any party for power.
- This form a competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand.
- In long-period power can be shared among different political parties.
- Sometimes this type of power-sharing is direct when two or more parties form an alliance to the central election they form a Coalition government.
About- Power Sharing class 10 notes
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