Resource and Development Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2020]
Introduction:- I know that you searching complete notes of the Resource and Development chapter, which is very easy to learn, easy to understand, and also important question contains. So you visit the right place in this article we cover every topic from your NCERT Geography- Resource and Development chapter. So let’s start our Resource and Development chapter with a simple question- WHAT IS RESOURCE?
What is Resources?
- Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy human needs, provided it is technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable is termed as resources.
- A thing became a resource when human beings identify it and transform it into a usable way.
Classification(types) of Resource:-
- On the basis of origin:- Biotic and Abiotic.
- On the basis of exhaustibility:- Renewable and Non-renewable resources.
- On the basis of ownership:- Individual, Community, National, and International.
- On the basis of the status of development:- Potential, Developed, Stock, and Reserves.
Classification of Resource on the Basis of Origin
- Biotic Resource:- All living organisms in our environment are called biotic resources.
- Ex:- human beings, trees, etc.
- Abiotic Resource:- All non-living things present in our environment is termed as abiotic resources.
- Ex:- earth, wind, etc.
Classification of Resource on the Basis of Exhaustibility
- Renewable Resource:- The resources which can be renewed or reproduce after a short period of time, by some physical, mechanical or chemical processes.
- Ex:- solar & wind energy etc.
- Non-Renewable Resource:- The resources which take millions of year or time to replenish(produce).
- Ex:- fossil fuels, minerals, etc.
Classification of Resource on the Basis of Ownership
- Individual-Resource:- Resources owned by individuals are called by individual resources.
- Ex:- houses, cars, etc.
- Community Resource:- Resources owned by community or society are called community resources.
- Ex:- grazing land, ponds, etc.
- National Resource:- Resources owned by individual nations (government) are called national resources. The country has legal powers to acquire even private lands.
- Ex:- forest, railways, etc.
- International Resource:- Resources regulate by international bodies like the united nations are called international resources.
- Ex:- ocean and sea beyond 200 nautical miles of the exclusive economic zone is called the ozone layer. no country uses without the permission of these bodies.
Classification of Resource on the Basis of Status of Development
- Potential Resource:- Resources that are found in a region but not yet used properly.
- Ex:- Gujarat and Rajasthan have plenty of solar and wind energy, but these resources are not used properly.
- Developed Resource:- Resources that are surveyed and their quantity and quality have been determined for utilization and we used in the present time is known as developed resources.
- Stock:- Resources that are available, but we do not have the proper technology to use them are called stock.
- Ex:- water is made of O2 and H2, H2 is inflammable gas which can be used fuel, but because of lack of proper technology, these are not being used.
- Reserves:- Resources which are available and know how to use them but their use has not been started.
- Ex:- some river which is not used to generate electricity.
Sustainable development:- Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment and development in present should not compromise, with need of the future generation.(imp. Q.)
Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit 1992
- It was the first international earth summit held in 1992.
- More than 100 heads of the nation meet in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.
- Keeping (aim) the view of justified use of resources and sustainable development.
- Assembled leaders signed the declaration of global climatic changes and biological diversity.
- They adopted AGENDA 21 for achieving sustainable development.
- It was a declaration adopt by the head of more than 100 nations.
- It was adopted in the Rio De Janeiro Earth summit, 1992.
- At the U.N. conference on environment and development.
- It’s an AGENDA to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease, etc through global cooperation by mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
- One major objective of AGENDA 21 is that every local govt. should draw their own local AGENDA 21.
Needs for resource planing in India:-
- Its important to have resource planning in the country like India because there in diversity in the availability of resource across India.
- In state of Jharkhand , Chhattisgarh and M.P. are rich in minerals and local deposits but they lack of water resources and other facilities.
- A.P. has plenty of water, but lacks in infrastructural developments.
- The state of Rajasthan and Gujarat have plenty of solar and wind energy but lack in water resources.
- In Ladakh there is lack of water, minerals etc.
Importance of Resource Planning in India:-
- Resources can contribute to the development of the country.
- Make availability of resources in these areas where they less found.
Why use proper technology?
- Because there is some region that is rich in resources but these are economically backward because of the lack of technology.
- There is some region which is lacks resources but they are economically developed.
- Resources can contribute to development only when they are accompanied by proper technology quality of human resources.
Explain the importance of conservation of resource?
- Social and Economic Problem:- The destruction of resources is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity.
- Ex:- the destruction of forest and wildlife is not just a biological issue, such losses have increasing marginalized of many local communities who directly depend on various components of the forest and wildlife for food, drink, medicine, culture, etc.
- Global Warning:- Overutilization of natural resources may lead to environmental pollution for example overuse of fossil fuels leads to global warming.
- Resource are necessary for life:- Natural resources like forest, water, soil, and air are necessary for survival.
Which human activities responsible for depletion of resource?
- Mining, overgrazing, over-irrigation are major factors.
- The expansion of railway, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry.
- Hunting, over-exploitation, poaching are factors that led to the decline in the world’s biodiversity.
- Overutilization of natural resources due to population pressure.
- Forest, land not available for cultivation:-
- a. Barren and wasteland.
- b. Land used for building, road, factories.
- Another uncultivated land:-
- a. Permanent pastures and grazing land.
- b. Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves.
- Fallow lands:-
- a. Current fallow(left without cultivable for one or less than one agricultural year).
- b. Other than current fallow(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
- Net sown area(area shown at least once in an agricultural year)
- Gross cropped area(area showed more than once in an agricultural year plus the net shown area is known as gross cropped area).
Land use pattern in India
- The pattern of use of land depends upon physical as well as a human factor both:-
- 1. Physical factor(climate, topography),
- 2. Human factor(skill, technology)
- India has a total of 3.28 million sq. km. land use date.
- But only 93% of the land of the total geographical area is available.
- This is because land use data has not been collected for both the northeastern state except Assam, land occupied by Pakistan and China has not been surveyed because of unavoidable reasons.
- The land under permanent pasture is decreasing, it will create the problems for grazing. 1960-61- 4.71%, 2008-09- 3.38%.
- The net sown area has increased 1960-61- 45.26%, 2008-09- 46.24%.
- The total Net Sown Area(NSA) is not more than 54% including land other than fallow land.
- Net Sown Area is more than 46% this is because India’s economy is dominated by agriculture.
- The area under non-agriculture use and area under forest has increased.
- The pattern of Net Sown Area(NSA) varies widely from state to state:-
- 1. Net Sown Area is 80% in Punjab, Haryana.
- 2. NSA is only 10% in the state of A.P., Manipur.
- According to the national forest policy(1952), the forest should be 33% of the total geographical area which is essential to maintain ecological balance.
- But the forest in India is far less than the desired measures.
- Presently, about 130 million hectares of land degraded in India.
- Forest degraded area(28%)
- Water eroded area(56%)
- Saline and alkaline land(6%)
- Wind eroded area(10%)
- Causes of Degradation:-
- Overgrazing, mining deforestation are some of the major causes of degraded land in India.
- Mining in the state of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and M.P. lands are left abandoned without proper treatment after the completion of the mining work.
- This has resulted in the form of deep scars and traces.
- Along with mining, deforestation in states has degraded the land very fast.
- In the states of U.P., Punjab, Haryana over-irrigation causes water shortage and an increase in salinity and alkalinity due to waterlogging.
- In Bihar, Assam, and A.P. land is degraded because of the flood.
- In some states in which minerals processing such as grinding of limestone manufacturing of cement etc. is done a huge quantity of dust is produced.
- This dust prevents the infiltration of water into the soil because of deposition on the ground and it resulted in degraded.g. Industrial waste can cause land and water degradation.
What measure to conserve the land resource?
- Proper management of grazing,
- Planting of shelter belts of plants,
- Stabilization of sand dunes by planting thorny bushes,
- Control on overgrazing,
- Proper management of wasteland,
- By proper irrigation,
- By proper harvesting,
- Control over mining activities,
- By preventing deforestation.
Formation of Soil
- It takes millions of years to form just 1 cm of soil.
- The weathering process of the rocks, relief, parent or bedrock climate, vegetation, running water, wind are factors that help in the formation of soil.
- Basis of classification of soil on the basis of:-
- Many types of soil are found in India.
- Its renewable natural resources.
Alluvial Soil [CBSE 2019]
- Alluvial soil found near the river or plain formed by the river.
- In India alluvial soil is found in northern plain.
- These major Himalayan rivers formed the northern plain:- a. the Ganga b. the Indus etc.
- These soil are extended in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor.
- Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plain near Mahanadi, Godavari river, etc.
- It’s fertile for agriculture.
- The plains are highly populated.
- Its the mixture of silt, salt, and clay.
- Alluvial soil is classified on the basis of the size of a particle of grain.
- Alluvial soil is rich in potash, phosphoric acid.
- It’s good for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, and wheat.
Black Soil [CBSE 2019]
- Due to black soil, it’s known as Regur soil.
- Its found in the northwest of the Deccan plateau.
- Its found in Maharashtra, M.P., and Chhattisgarh, extended in a southeast direction along with Godavari and Krishna rivers.
- Black soil has a high concentration of fine particles and can hold moisture for a long time.
- It contains moisture calcium, potassium, magnesium, and lime, and it’s suitable for cotton crops.
- Black soil is poor in phosphoric content.
- In hot weather, deep cracks developed on its help in proper accretion of the soil.
- These soil are sticky when are wet.
Red and Yellow Soil
- These soil are beds due to the presence of iron in crystalline or metamorphic rocks.
- These soils took yellow when it’s in dehydrates form.
- Its presence in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
- Its found in Orissa, Chhattisgarh, on the southern part of the Gangetic plain, along with the Piedmont zone of the western ghat.
- The word derived from the Latin word ‘later’ means brick.
- It’s formed in regions which receive high rainfall along with the high temperature.
- This causes leaching of the soil and microorganism killed during the processes.
- Due to this, it does not contain humus.
- Its found in Kerala, Karnataka, M.P., and in hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
- It can be made cultivable with a heavy dose of manure.
- Its found in that area which resources scanty rainfall.
- Due to high temperatures, evaporation is faster in this region.
- This soil has a high content of salt.
- It ranges from brown to red color.
- The lower horizon of the soil is occupied by kankar, because of the increasing content of calcium content.
- It restricts the infiltration of water.
- It can be made cultivable with proper treatment.
- Its found in Rajasthan & Gujarat.
- Its found in hilly areas.
- The upper parts of it are highly acidic because of denudation.
- These are loamy and silty in the valley side.
- In upper parts these are coarse.
- In the snow-covered area the soil experience denudation, these are acidic and low humus content.
- The soil which is found the lower part of the valley is more fertile.
What is soil erosion?
- It’s a process in which the upper layer of the soil is washed away.
- Reason for soil erosion:-
- Construction work,
- Mining, Wind,
- Types of soil erosion:-
- Gully erosion:- When the running water cuts the clayey soils and makes a deep channel, this type of soil erosion is known as gully erosion.
- Sheet erosion:- When running water flows over a large area down a slope in such cases the topsoil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.
- Wind erosion:- When the wind blows, the loose soil is offed this is known as wind erosion.
How to conserve soil?
- Proper management of grazing.
- Plowing along the contour lines.
- Terrace/steep cultivation:- western and central Himalayas have well-developed terrace farming.
- Strip cropping:- strips of grass are left to grow between the crops, this breaks up the force of the wind.
- Planting of shelterbelts.
- Stabilization of sand dunes, it’s most popular in the desert of western India.
- Proper management of mining and construction works.
About- Resource and Development class 10 notes
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