Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 2 | History

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socialism in europe and the russian revolution notes

Introduction:- I know that you searching a complete notes of the Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution chapter, that is very easy to learn, easy to understand, and also important question contains. So you visit the right place in this article we cover every topic from your NCERT History- Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution chapter. So let’s start our Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution chapter with a simple question- WHAT IS IDEA OF SOCIALISM?

What was the basic Idea of Socialism?

  • The idea of socialism is spread by Russia.
  • Due to the french revolution, the change took place in the whole of Europe.
  • The change was except for most of the people(Europe) but not all.
  • A society divided into three-part:-
    • Conservative
    • Liberals
    • Radical

➤ Define Liberals

  • They want to establish a nation where all region were given equal important.
  • The agreed to form parliamentary form government(elected by people).
  • Opposed monarchy.
  • They were not in favour of giving voting right to women.
  • They perferred to give voting, right to properly.

➤ Define Radical

  • They wanted to establish a nation where the government is elect by majority of the population.
  • They were in favor of gives the voting rights to women.
  • But they were against to give any right to launched factors owners.

➤ Define Conservative

  • Initially, they did not accept the change. But they felt the need for the change. But the change should take place slowly.
socialism in europe and the russian revolution notes
Socialism in Europe and the Russian revolution notes

How industrial Society & Social change?

  • Due to the industrial revolution & expansion of railway new society were came into being.
  • The men, women & children started working in factories but they face so many problems like:-
    • Low wages
    • Long working hours
    • Poor working condition
    • Houses were not available
    • Unemployment
    • Sanitation(Cleanliness)
  • The industries mainly owned by individuals, not by the government like liberal & radical.
  • They came forward to solve the problem of the worker.
  • They gave an idea:-
    • The condition of the worker should be improve by employing them in their properties.
    • By making them more literate.
    • They get high salaries their standard of living improved hence the nation developed.
    • Monarchy should be abolish everyone accepts their ideas special by the nationalist.

How socialism in Europe come?

  • The socialist was against private property.
  • They were in favor of cooperative & in of collective benefit.
  • They were against the private property because the capitalist got benefit but the worker who being benefited from property holders get nothing.
  • The property holders are not work for collective interest.

The idea regarding socialism by different thinkers

  • Robert Owen(1771-1858) was leading English manufacturing he believed in cooperative for this purpose he building a cooperative community called New Harmony(India, U.S.A.).
  • But other socialist felt that at individual level cooperative could be work at wide scales there was a need that the government should operate cooperatively.
  • Louis Blanc(1813-1882) of France he wants the cooperative should be operate/encourage by the government & capitalist should be replace.
  • Karl Marx(1818-1883) & Friedrich Engles(1820-1875).
  • The added other view to the argument➼
    • He opposed capitalist(factory owner) property or property holders.
    • The profit to the capitalist was bring by the workers but the profit was distribute with capitalistic.
    • The workers should be overthrow capitalist.
    • Workers should construct a socialist society.
    • This socialist society was known as a communist society in the future.

Support of socialism

  • Workers in England/Germany raise funds to help a member in times of difficulty.
  • Demanded a high salary and reduction in working hours.
  • In Germany, the Social Democratic Party(SPD) formed.
  • And in 1905, socialist & trade unionists formed a labor party in Britain.
  • In France, the socialist party was formed.

Define The Russian empire in 1914

  • In 1914 Ramnor family was ruling over Russia. King was Tsar Nicholas II.
  • Empire- Moscow, Ukraine, Finland, Estonia & some parts of Poland.
  • Russian learning was extend Pacific to Central Asia.
  • Religion- Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Buddism large number of follower Russian or those of Christianity.

Explain about Russian Economy & society

  • 85% of the population was engage in agriculture(Germany 50%, France 40%).
  • They were the major exporters of foodgrain to European countries and industries were limited.
  • The area where industries were mostly located:-
    • Saint Petersburg
    • Moscow
  • Most factories were located near a craft workshop(craftiness).
  • The condition of the workers was very bad.
    • Low wages
    • Resources not available
    • They slept in a dormitory
    • High working hours.
  • Rules were create by the government but not follow by inspectors.
  • A worker was also divided into social groups based on skills.
  • The metalworker considered themselves powerful.
  • 31% of workers were female, but their wages were low as compared to male workers.
  • The workers formed an association at the time of unemployed to help the member worker.

Meaning of Strick by worker:- When any strick carried by worker they united together & ignored the categories. In 1896 & 1902 the stricks were taken place in metal industries.

What was Country side(village)?

  • In the countryside most properly holders were landlords nobility.
  • The peasant cultivated lands.
  • The peasant hates the nobility & landlords. They was dusty religions.
  • The nobles get power from Tsar Nicholas II.
  • The peasant wants the land of nobles 1st landlords were given to them.
  • The peasant refused to pay rent, even a murdered landlord.
  • This occurs in large November in 1902 South Russia.
  • In 1905, this type of incident was happening all over Russia.

Socialism in Russia

Explain political condition of Russia

  • Russia was rule by a monarch Tsar Nicholas II.
  • He ignored the welfare of peasants & workers.
  • There was no say in peasants & workers in the government.
  • But the Nobles had special rights.
  • To end this, the liberal formed the Russian social democratic worker party in 1898.
  • The party followed the idea of Karal Marx.
  • The Bolshevik party was head by Vladimir. They adopted the idea of socialism in Russia
  • In 1903, this party was divide into two groups:-
    • Bolsheviks group
    • Mensheviks group

Difference between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks


  • Meant a member a majority.
  • They believed in the centralized party of the professional revolution.
  • They are not willing to work with the middle class for their revolutionary work.
  • Draw lets public attention the Mensheviks.
  • They ignored the idea of other parties.
  • They believed that Russia could directly go from absolute monarchy to a communist society.


  • Meant a member of a minority.
  • Believed in a more democratic party structure that allowed disagreement.
  • They were willing to work with the middle class for their revolutionary work.
  • Draw more public attention because of their inclusive ideas.
  • They accepted the ideas of other political parties.
  • They believed in going ahead step by step to make the country communist.
socialism in europe and the russian revolution notes
The 1905 Revolution

Define the 1905 revolution (V.imp.)

  • Russia is rule by a monarch(Tsar Nicolaus II).
  • There was no parliament.
  • Liberals with the help of social-democratic & socialist revolutionary, workers & peasants demanded the constitution.
  • They were support by the nationalist of Poland & the Muslim dominant area.
  • In 1904 due to inflation, the real wages of workers go down 20%.
  • To solves the problems association were form everywhere.
  • Four members of the assembly of the Russian worker were dismiss. At the Putilov ironworkers.
  • Within a few days, 1,10,000 workers at St. Petersburg went on strike demanding:-
    • Reduction in working hours
    • Increase in wages
    • Improvement in working condition
  • A procession of worker-led by father Gapon reached at winter places attacked by police.
  • 100 workers were kill & 300 were injured.
  • This incident was known as ‘Bloody Sunday’.
  • After its lot of event took place everywhere & known as the 1905 revolution.
  • The student also participated in this revolution.
  • And the universities were close down, strikes happened everywhere.
  • Lawyers, doctors, engineers, established the union they demanded constituent assembly.

What step taken by Tsar after 1905 revolution

  • Tsar allowed the creation of elected consultative parliament or Duma.
  • Trade unions factory communities allowed to exist & after declared illegal 1905 revolution.
  • Many revolutions were place on political parties.
  • Tsar dismissed the 1st duma within 75days and re-elected the 2nd duma within 3months.
  • There was no reduction in authority & power of the monarch.
  • He changes voting laws and formed the 3rd duma.
  • But this time (3rd time) he kept ‘conservative politician’ as duma members.
  • He kept out liberals & socialist revolutionaries from duma.

First world war

  • It was fought between two power.
    Allies power- Britain, France, U.S.A., and Russia
    Central power- Germany, Ottoman, Turkey, Austria, and Hungry

Ques:- The first world war was initially popular & people co-operative Tsar Nicholas II, but after they refuse to cooperative Tsar why?

  • Initially, the people rallie on Tsar but as the was continue people oppose Tsar.
  • Because the Tsar refused to consult with duma.
  • Russian were against the German as the result they changed the name of St. Petersburg(a german name) & the name give petroguard.
  • Tsarina Alexander(Tsar wife) was of German origin.
  • Tsar took a bad advisor from Ras Putin and made up to unpopular.

Ques:- Explain the reason why the people wanted the Tsar to withdraw from the world war?

  • Because the first world war on the eastern front was weaker and many destructions were cause.
  • On the western front, the war fought by Britain was strong.
  • The defeat and destruction were shocking.
  • As German armies moved further, the Russian armies destroyed the crops, building to prevent the entry of enemies.
  • Destroyed of crops and building led 3 million refused to Russia. This situation discredited the Tsar government.
  • Even soldiers did want to fight.
  • In 1916, the railway was broken and there was a shortage of labor.
  • The surplus grain was send to the soldiers. It led to a shortage of bread.
  • By the winter of 1916 riots(fight) at branded shops were common.

Ques:- How was the 1st world war on the eastern front different from that on the western front explain?

  • On the western fought war was strongly fought by great Britain who were having strong Noval force and a strong army.
  • On the eastern front was Russia and the condition of Russia was not good due to the Russian revolution. So they could not concentration on war.
  • So, get led a large number of casualties and destruction in the east front.
  • Russian army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916.
  • Germany gave equal fight on both the front.

What were the main causes of Russian revolution?

  • There was a monarchy rule by Tsar Nicholas II.
  • Industries were few and owned by P.V.T. industrialists.
  • Every political party wanted to make the country a socialist country.
  • The condition of the peasant was very poor.
  • The condition of a worker in the factory was not good like:-
    • Poor working condition
    • Low wages condition
    • Long working hours
    • Housing
    • Sanitation.

What effect of February revolution? (imp.)

  • There was a restriction on public meetings and associations were removed by the government(provisional government).
  • Soviet-like ‘Petrograd Soviet’ set up everywhere.
  • Committees were formed in every industry to ensure that nothing happened wrong with the worker.
  • In April 1917, the Bolshevik leaders Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from exile. He had his support opposed to the wars from 1914.
  • There was an increase in the popularity of Bolsheviks.
  • The provisional government began to decline. So the government decided to take strict major to restrict discontent.
  • Workers and supporters of Bolshevik who oppose the provisional government was arrested.
  • The peasant and socialist leaders demanded redistributed land.
  • Soon land committees formed.
  • And peasant seized land between July and September 1917.

Define Lenin April

  • These were three demands of Vladimir Lenin known as Lenin’s April when he returned from exile in Russia in 1917.
  • Three demanded were:-
    • The war should be stop,
    • Lands to be transform to peasant,
    • The bank be nationalize.

socialism in europe and the russian revolution class 9
October Revolution

Explain October Revolution (imp.)

  • The conflict between the provisional government and Bolsheviks grew.
  • To Lenin forced that the provisional government would set up a dictatorship in Russia.
  • In September he began a discussion on the uprising against the government.
  • All supporters of Bolsheviks from army, soviet, and others put together.
  • On 16th October 1917, Lenin with the help of Petrograd soviet and Bolsheviks party agreed to at socialist seizure of power.
  • For this purpose, they formed a ‘military revolution committee’.
  • On 24th October uprising began.
  • Sensing trouble the Prime Minister Keren skill arranged troops in the city.
  • Two buildings of Bolsheviks newspaper were seize by the loyal men of government.
  • Troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and to protect winter palaces.
  • In response, the ‘Military Revolution’ committee ordered its supporters to seize the family government building and office and asset government officers.
  • In the area, ship shelled palaces (surrounded) winter palaces.
  • By the night, the minister surrounded and the city had been taken over.
  • At the meeting of all Russian congrees soviet in Petrograd and approved Bolsheviks.
  • There was having fought in Moscow but controlled by Bolshevik.

What effect of the October revolution?

  • In November 1917, most industries and banks were nationalize.
  • Lands were declare social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of nobility.
  • The use of the old titles was ban.
  • The new uniform was design for the army and officials.
  • Russia became a one-party state.
  • The trade union was control by the government.
  • A process of centralize planning was introduce this led to economic growth.
  • There was an increase in industrial production.
  • A new external system of schooling system was introduce.
  • The Collectivilisation of lands began.

Something tell about Provisional government

  • It is a transmitted government. It is an emergency government authority set up to manage a political transition.
  • Capitalism:- An economic and political system in which a country trades and industrial and controlled by private property holders. The main motive to earn more profit.
  • It was a forced policy of consolidation of industrial peasant households into collective forms ‘kolkhozes’ carried out by the Soviet government in late 1920 to early 1930.

What causes of Civil war?

  • When Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution the Russian army began to break up.
  • Soldiers wishing to go back home for redistribution of land.
  • Non-Bolsheviks started an uprising against Bolsheviks.
  • Their leaders moved to South Russia and organized troops to fight with Bolsheviks.
  • These troops and Bolsheviks fight and a civil war started in Russia.
  • Coating, famine become common.

How Russia become a socialist society?

  • Bolsheviks kept banks and industries nationalized.
  • They permit peasants that the land had been socialized.
  • Bolsheviks forcefully carried out collective farming by a peasant.
  • Centralize planning was introduce and five years plan was formed.
  • The government fixed the price of all things for 2 years’ plans.
  • That is centralized planning that led the economic growth and industrial production increased.
  • New factory cities came into being and schooling system was develop.
  • The arrangement was made for factory workers and peasants to enter university.
  • Creches were established in the factory for the children of women workers.
  • Cheap public health care was provided.
  • Model living quarters were set up for workers.

What was Stalinism and Collectivisation (imp.)

  • The town of Russian facing acute problems of grain supply by 1927-28.
  • Stalin the leader of Bolshevik after the death of can in made an investigation of the problems.
  • He introduced the sum emergency major regarding it.
  • The Stalin collectivization measure program in 1929 was one of these major.
  • All the farmers were for cultivation in collective farms(KolHoz) under this program.
  • The profit is the product all collective forms were shared among farmers who worked on the land.
  • The farmer who refused to work to collectively were punished.
  • Stalin government did allow some of the cultivators to work independently but they were treated unsympathetically.
  • Stalin collectivization program had an adverse consequence and the production did not increase immediately.
  • This led to one of the worst famine in Soviet history in 1932-33 when over 4 million people died.
Ques:- What were the global influence of Russian revolution?
  • In many countries, communist parties were established as a communist party in Great Britain.
  • The Bolshevik encouraged colonial people to follow socialism.
  • Much non-Russian participation in the conference of people of east and Bolshevik founded Comintern.
  • Some revised education in USSR’s university about socialism.
  • At the time of the 2nd world war, the USSR gave socialism a global face.

Important word meaning:-

  1. Comintern➠ It is a communist international union of the Bolshevik socialist party.
  2. Kolkhoz➠ These were collective farms.
  3. Kulaks➠ It was the name given to the well-to-do peasant of Russia.
socialism in europe and the russian revolution short notes
February Revolution

The February revolution in Petrogard(capital)

  • In the winter of 1917, the condition of capital(Petrograd) was severe.
  • There was a shortage of food grain in the worker. quantities.
  • Division of city and there was a river Neva.
  • On the right side of the Neva river, the worker’s quarters and factories were located.
  • On the left bank, there was a fashionable area, the winter palace official building the building where the Duma meeting on 22 February
  • A lockout took place in a factory at the right bank of river Neva.
  • The next day the worker of so factories joined the strike.
  • The women also participated in it so this day known as international women days.
  • As the quarter and building of fashionable areas and official buildings were surrounded by workers.
  • The government imposed a curfew.
  • They were dispersed till the evening.
  • Demonstrators came back on the 24th & 25th of February the government called the police and cavalry to keep on eye on demonstrators.
  • On 25th February the government suspended the Duma and the politicians opposed this action.
  • On the 27th of February, police headquarters were attacked.
  • Due to this reason, the cavalry was called out again.
  • An officer was a slot at barracks of a regiment and other regiment mutined.
  • By that evening soldier and striking workers had gathered and a Soviet called Petrograd soviet.
  • On 2nd January Tsar Nicholas 2nd was abdicated.
  • Soviet and duma leaders formed a provisional government to run the country.

End: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Chapter

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