Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 2 | History
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What was the basic Idea of Socialism?
- The idea of socialism is spread by Russia.
- Due to the french revolution, the change took place in the whole of Europe.
- The change was except for most of the people(Europe) but not all.
- A society divided into three-part:-
➤ Define Liberals
- They want to establish a nation where all region were given equal important.
- The agreed to form parliamentary form government(elected by people).
- Opposed monarchy.
- They were not in favour of giving voting right to women.
- They perferred to give voting, right to properly.
➤ Define Radical
- They wanted to establish a nation where the government is elect by majority of the population.
- They were in favor of gives the voting rights to women.
- But they were against to give any right to launched factors owners.
➤ Define Conservative
- Initially, they did not accept the change. But they felt the need for the change. But the change should take place slowly.
How industrial Society & Social change?
- Due to the industrial revolution & expansion of railway new society were came into being.
- The men, women & children started working in factories but they face so many problems like:-
- Low wages
- Long working hours
- Poor working condition
- Houses were not available
- The industries mainly owned by individuals, not by the government like liberal & radical.
- They came forward to solve the problem of the worker.
- They gave an idea:-
- The condition of the worker should be improve by employing them in their properties.
- By making them more literate.
- They get high salaries their standard of living improved hence the nation developed.
- Monarchy should be abolish everyone accepts their ideas special by the nationalist.
How socialism in Europe come?
- The socialist was against private property.
- They were in favor of cooperative & in of collective benefit.
- They were against the private property because the capitalist got benefit but the worker who being benefited from property holders get nothing.
- The property holders are not work for collective interest.
The idea regarding socialism by different thinkers
- Robert Owen(1771-1858) was leading English manufacturing he believed in cooperative for this purpose he building a cooperative community called New Harmony(India, U.S.A.).
- But other socialist felt that at individual level cooperative could be work at wide scales there was a need that the government should operate cooperatively.
- Louis Blanc(1813-1882) of France he wants the cooperative should be operate/encourage by the government & capitalist should be replace.
- Karl Marx(1818-1883) & Friedrich Engles(1820-1875).
- The added other view to the argument➼
- He opposed capitalist(factory owner) property or property holders.
- The profit to the capitalist was bring by the workers but the profit was distribute with capitalistic.
- The workers should be overthrow capitalist.
- Workers should construct a socialist society.
- This socialist society was known as a communist society in the future.
Support of socialism
- Workers in England/Germany raise funds to help a member in times of difficulty.
- Demanded a high salary and reduction in working hours.
- In Germany, the Social Democratic Party(SPD) formed.
- And in 1905, socialist & trade unionists formed a labor party in Britain.
- In France, the socialist party was formed.
Define The Russian empire in 1914
- In 1914 Ramnor family was ruling over Russia. King was Tsar Nicholas II.
- Empire- Moscow, Ukraine, Finland, Estonia & some parts of Poland.
- Russian learning was extend Pacific to Central Asia.
- Religion- Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Buddism large number of follower Russian or those of Christianity.
Explain about Russian Economy & society
- 85% of the population was engage in agriculture(Germany 50%, France 40%).
- They were the major exporters of foodgrain to European countries and industries were limited.
- The area where industries were mostly located:-
- Saint Petersburg
- Most factories were located near a craft workshop(craftiness).
- The condition of the workers was very bad.
- Low wages
- Resources not available
- They slept in a dormitory
- High working hours.
- Rules were create by the government but not follow by inspectors.
- A worker was also divided into social groups based on skills.
- The metalworker considered themselves powerful.
- 31% of workers were female, but their wages were low as compared to male workers.
- The workers formed an association at the time of unemployed to help the member worker.
Meaning of Strick by worker:- When any strick carried by worker they united together & ignored the categories. In 1896 & 1902 the stricks were taken place in metal industries.
What was Country side(village)?
- In the countryside most properly holders were landlords nobility.
- The peasant cultivated lands.
- The peasant hates the nobility & landlords. They was dusty religions.
- The nobles get power from Tsar Nicholas II.
- The peasant wants the land of nobles 1st landlords were given to them.
- The peasant refused to pay rent, even a murdered landlord.
- This occurs in large November in 1902 South Russia.
- In 1905, this type of incident was happening all over Russia.
Socialism in Russia
Explain political condition of Russia
- Russia was rule by a monarch Tsar Nicholas II.
- He ignored the welfare of peasants & workers.
- There was no say in peasants & workers in the government.
- But the Nobles had special rights.
- To end this, the liberal formed the Russian social democratic worker party in 1898.
- The party followed the idea of Karal Marx.
- The Bolshevik party was head by Vladimir. They adopted the idea of socialism in Russia
- In 1903, this party was divide into two groups:-
- Bolsheviks group
- Mensheviks group
Difference between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
- Meant a member a majority.
- They believed in the centralized party of the professional revolution.
- They are not willing to work with the middle class for their revolutionary work.
- Draw lets public attention the Mensheviks.
- They ignored the idea of other parties.
- They believed that Russia could directly go from absolute monarchy to a communist society.
- Meant a member of a minority.
- Believed in a more democratic party structure that allowed disagreement.
- They were willing to work with the middle class for their revolutionary work.
- Draw more public attention because of their inclusive ideas.
- They accepted the ideas of other political parties.
- They believed in going ahead step by step to make the country communist.
Define the 1905 revolution (V.imp.)
- Russia is rule by a monarch(Tsar Nicolaus II).
- There was no parliament.
- Liberals with the help of social-democratic & socialist revolutionary, workers & peasants demanded the constitution.
- They were support by the nationalist of Poland & the Muslim dominant area.
- In 1904 due to inflation, the real wages of workers go down 20%.
- To solves the problems association were form everywhere.
- Four members of the assembly of the Russian worker were dismiss. At the Putilov ironworkers.
- Within a few days, 1,10,000 workers at St. Petersburg went on strike demanding:-
- Reduction in working hours
- Increase in wages
- Improvement in working condition
- A procession of worker-led by father Gapon reached at winter places attacked by police.
- 100 workers were kill & 300 were injured.
- This incident was known as ‘Bloody Sunday’.
- After its lot of event took place everywhere & known as the 1905 revolution.
- The student also participated in this revolution.
- And the universities were close down, strikes happened everywhere.
- Lawyers, doctors, engineers, established the union they demanded constituent assembly.
What step taken by Tsar after 1905 revolution
- Tsar allowed the creation of elected consultative parliament or Duma.
- Trade unions factory communities allowed to exist & after declared illegal 1905 revolution.
- Many revolutions were place on political parties.
- Tsar dismissed the 1st duma within 75days and re-elected the 2nd duma within 3months.
- There was no reduction in authority & power of the monarch.
- He changes voting laws and formed the 3rd duma.
- But this time (3rd time) he kept ‘conservative politician’ as duma members.
- He kept out liberals & socialist revolutionaries from duma.
First world war
- It was fought between two power.
➥ Allies power- Britain, France, U.S.A., and Russia
➥ Central power- Germany, Ottoman, Turkey, Austria, and Hungry
Ques:- The first world war was initially popular & people co-operative Tsar Nicholas II, but after they refuse to cooperative Tsar why?
- Initially, the people rallie on Tsar but as the was continue people oppose Tsar.
- Because the Tsar refused to consult with duma.
- Russian were against the German as the result they changed the name of St. Petersburg(a german name) & the name give petroguard.
- Tsarina Alexander(Tsar wife) was of German origin.
- Tsar took a bad advisor from Ras Putin and made up to unpopular.
Ques:- Explain the reason why the people wanted the Tsar to withdraw from the world war?
- Because the first world war on the eastern front was weaker and many destructions were cause.
- On the western front, the war fought by Britain was strong.
- The defeat and destruction were shocking.
- As German armies moved further, the Russian armies destroyed the crops, building to prevent the entry of enemies.
- Destroyed of crops and building led 3 million refused to Russia. This situation discredited the Tsar government.
- Even soldiers did want to fight.
- In 1916, the railway was broken and there was a shortage of labor.
- The surplus grain was send to the soldiers. It led to a shortage of bread.
- By the winter of 1916 riots(fight) at branded shops were common.
Ques:- How was the 1st world war on the eastern front different from that on the western front explain?
- On the western fought war was strongly fought by great Britain who were having strong Noval force and a strong army.
- On the eastern front was Russia and the condition of Russia was not good due to the Russian revolution. So they could not concentration on war.
- So, get led a large number of casualties and destruction in the east front.
- Russian army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916.
- Germany gave equal fight on both the front.
What were the main causes of Russian revolution?
- There was a monarchy rule by Tsar Nicholas II.
- Industries were few and owned by P.V.T. industrialists.
- Every political party wanted to make the country a socialist country.
- The condition of the peasant was very poor.
- The condition of a worker in the factory was not good like:-
- Poor working condition
- Low wages condition
- Long working hours
What effect of February revolution? (imp.)
- There was a restriction on public meetings and associations were removed by the government(provisional government).
- Soviet-like ‘Petrograd Soviet’ set up everywhere.
- Committees were formed in every industry to ensure that nothing happened wrong with the worker.
- In April 1917, the Bolshevik leaders Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from exile. He had his support opposed to the wars from 1914.
- There was an increase in the popularity of Bolsheviks.
- The provisional government began to decline. So the government decided to take strict major to restrict discontent.
- Workers and supporters of Bolshevik who oppose the provisional government was arrested.
- The peasant and socialist leaders demanded redistributed land.
- Soon land committees formed.
- And peasant seized land between July and September 1917.
Define Lenin April
- These were three demands of Vladimir Lenin known as Lenin’s April when he returned from exile in Russia in 1917.
- Three demanded were:-
- The war should be stop,
- Lands to be transform to peasant,
- The bank be nationalize.
Explain October Revolution (imp.)
- The conflict between the provisional government and Bolsheviks grew.
- To Lenin forced that the provisional government would set up a dictatorship in Russia.
- In September he began a discussion on the uprising against the government.
- All supporters of Bolsheviks from army, soviet, and others put together.
- On 16th October 1917, Lenin with the help of Petrograd soviet and Bolsheviks party agreed to at socialist seizure of power.
- For this purpose, they formed a ‘military revolution committee’.
- On 24th October uprising began.
- Sensing trouble the Prime Minister Keren skill arranged troops in the city.
- Two buildings of Bolsheviks newspaper were seize by the loyal men of government.
- Troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and to protect winter palaces.
- In response, the ‘Military Revolution’ committee ordered its supporters to seize the family government building and office and asset government officers.
- In the area, ship shelled palaces (surrounded) winter palaces.
- By the night, the minister surrounded and the city had been taken over.
- At the meeting of all Russian congrees soviet in Petrograd and approved Bolsheviks.
- There was having fought in Moscow but controlled by Bolshevik.
What effect of the October revolution?
- In November 1917, most industries and banks were nationalize.
- Lands were declare social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of nobility.
- The use of the old titles was ban.
- The new uniform was design for the army and officials.
- Russia became a one-party state.
- The trade union was control by the government.
- A process of centralize planning was introduce this led to economic growth.
- There was an increase in industrial production.
- A new external system of schooling system was introduce.
- The Collectivilisation of lands began.
Something tell about Provisional government
- It is a transmitted government. It is an emergency government authority set up to manage a political transition.
- Capitalism:- An economic and political system in which a country trades and industrial and controlled by private property holders. The main motive to earn more profit.
- It was a forced policy of consolidation of industrial peasant households into collective forms ‘kolkhozes’ carried out by the Soviet government in late 1920 to early 1930.
What causes of Civil war?
- When Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution the Russian army began to break up.
- Soldiers wishing to go back home for redistribution of land.
- Non-Bolsheviks started an uprising against Bolsheviks.
- Their leaders moved to South Russia and organized troops to fight with Bolsheviks.
- These troops and Bolsheviks fight and a civil war started in Russia.
- Coating, famine become common.
How Russia become a socialist society?
- Bolsheviks kept banks and industries nationalized.
- They permit peasants that the land had been socialized.
- Bolsheviks forcefully carried out collective farming by a peasant.
- Centralize planning was introduce and five years plan was formed.
- The government fixed the price of all things for 2 years’ plans.
- That is centralized planning that led the economic growth and industrial production increased.
- New factory cities came into being and schooling system was develop.
- The arrangement was made for factory workers and peasants to enter university.
- Creches were established in the factory for the children of women workers.
- Cheap public health care was provided.
- Model living quarters were set up for workers.
What was Stalinism and Collectivisation (imp.)
- The town of Russian facing acute problems of grain supply by 1927-28.
- Stalin the leader of Bolshevik after the death of can in made an investigation of the problems.
- He introduced the sum emergency major regarding it.
- The Stalin collectivization measure program in 1929 was one of these major.
- All the farmers were for cultivation in collective farms(KolHoz) under this program.
- The profit is the product all collective forms were shared among farmers who worked on the land.
- The farmer who refused to work to collectively were punished.
- Stalin government did allow some of the cultivators to work independently but they were treated unsympathetically.
- Stalin collectivization program had an adverse consequence and the production did not increase immediately.
- This led to one of the worst famine in Soviet history in 1932-33 when over 4 million people died.
Ques:- What were the global influence of Russian revolution?
- In many countries, communist parties were established as a communist party in Great Britain.
- The Bolshevik encouraged colonial people to follow socialism.
- Much non-Russian participation in the conference of people of east and Bolshevik founded Comintern.
- Some revised education in USSR’s university about socialism.
- At the time of the 2nd world war, the USSR gave socialism a global face.
Important word meaning:-
- Comintern➠ It is a communist international union of the Bolshevik socialist party.
- Kolkhoz➠ These were collective farms.
- Kulaks➠ It was the name given to the well-to-do peasant of Russia.
The February revolution in Petrogard(capital)
- In the winter of 1917, the condition of capital(Petrograd) was severe.
- There was a shortage of food grain in the worker. quantities.
- Division of city and there was a river Neva.
- On the right side of the Neva river, the worker’s quarters and factories were located.
- On the left bank, there was a fashionable area, the winter palace official building the building where the Duma meeting on 22 February
- A lockout took place in a factory at the right bank of river Neva.
- The next day the worker of so factories joined the strike.
- The women also participated in it so this day known as international women days.
- As the quarter and building of fashionable areas and official buildings were surrounded by workers.
- The government imposed a curfew.
- They were dispersed till the evening.
- Demonstrators came back on the 24th & 25th of February the government called the police and cavalry to keep on eye on demonstrators.
- On 25th February the government suspended the Duma and the politicians opposed this action.
- On the 27th of February, police headquarters were attacked.
- Due to this reason, the cavalry was called out again.
- An officer was a slot at barracks of a regiment and other regiment mutined.
- By that evening soldier and striking workers had gathered and a Soviet called Petrograd soviet.
- On 2nd January Tsar Nicholas 2nd was abdicated.
- Soviet and duma leaders formed a provisional government to run the country.
End: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Chapter
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