The French Revolution Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 1 | History

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The French Revolution Class 9 Notes

Introduction of the French Revolution:- The French Revolution this is chapter 1 of CBSE history. In this notes, we cover every topics from your NCERT book like Causes of the French Revolution, about Fall of Bastille, The Outbreak of the Revolution, Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte and so many topics we cover in this chapter. So let’s start the french revolution chapter with a simple question: What is French Revolution?

What is French Revolution?

  • French revolution happens to change the system of government in France.
  • The time period was 14th July 1789 to 1799.
  • During the french revolution, Louis XVI belongs to the Bourbon dynasty and he was king at the time of the French revolution.
  • In 1744, Louis XVI became the king and he was 20 years old at he becomes king in 1744.
  • Louis XVI married the Australian princess ‘Marie Antoinette‘.
  • Louis XVI believed that he had some divine power.
  • He regarded himself as a representation of a god.

Fact:- The French society was divided on the basis of Privileged and Unprivileged.

The French Revolution Class 9 Notes
The French Revolution Class 9 Notes

Causes of the French Revolution

There are 8 main cause of French Revolution:-

  1. Political cause,
  2. Social cause,
  3. Economical cause,
  4. Intellectual cause,
  5. Role of the middle class,
  6. The famine of 1788 – 1789,
  7. Financial help to 13 US colonies,
  8. The fall of Bastille.

1. Political Cause of French revolution

  • There was Monarchy in France.
  • Louis XVI was the monarch and ascended the throne in 1744 AD.
  • He believed that the had some divine power.
  • The representative institution was destroy by Louis XVI.
  • The Administrative department was defective and disorganized.
  • The people were not free because Louis XVI introduce a warrant called “Lettres-De-Cachet “.
  • The laws was not uniform, nearby 400 law existed in whole France.
  • The king was inefficient and weak and the royal expenditure was increase.
  • His wife Marry Antoinette(Austrian) interferes in the political matter.
  • They {king+wife} lived in Royal palace in Varsallies and there was a representative body.
  • The prize{higher} post was given to Nobles and Clergies only.

Who was George Danton?

  • He was a revolutionary and wrote a book in 1793.
  • His college name was the “Residential College of Paris”.
  • He live with nobles and clergies but he was not appoint for the higher post, because he was not born in Noble or Clergy family.

2. Social Causes of French Revolution

  • The structure of French society was feudal in nature.
  • The society was organize on the system of Estate.
  • There were three estates in french society:-
    • Clergy
      • 1st Estate also known as Clergies(the person who belongs to chruch).
    • Noble
      • 2nd Estate also known as Nobles(the person who belongs to the royal court).
    • Third Estate
      • 3rd Estate(the person who belongs to businessmen, lawyers, merchants, peasants, labor, servant, etc).
  • French society was also divided on the basis of Privileged and Unprivileged.

Privileged group

  • Clergy and noble come under this group and they not pay taxes.
  • They were 5% of the total population of the country.
  • They process 40% of total land of the country.
  • Higher posts were given to Noble and Clergies.

Unprivileged group

  • 3rd state came under it.
  • They pay taxes and they have 95% of the total population.
  • They consist only 60% of total land of the country.
  • Higher posts were not given to Unprivileged group people.

3. Economical Causes of French revolution

  • The financial policy of the government was not good.
  • They spent more money on wars.
  • France provided financial help to 13 American colonies for their freedom.
  • France’s debt was 2 billion Livre(Livre was a currency).
  • The taxation system was not fair because Clergies and nobles did not pay taxes, taxes were only pay by the third estate.
  • The tariffs(tax) were increase which led to a rise in prices of goods.
  • The government expenditure was greater than the government revenues.
  • They meet their deficit by taking loans from the public at a high rate of interest.
  • They spent 3/4 of the total income on interest and defense.
  • Price of goods was increase(inflation increase).
  • To meet(beat) the crisis the government increases direct and indirect taxes.

What is Subsistence Crisis?

  • The population of France rose from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789.
  • This increased the demand for food grains. However, production could not keep pace with the demand which ultimately increased the price of the food grains.
  • Most workers work as laborers in the workshop and they didn’t see an increase in their wages.
  • The situation becomes worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest.
  • This led to the scarcity(lack) of food grains or subsistence crises which started occurring frequently during the old regime.

Important Words:-

  1. Livre:- It was the currency of France during the French revolution and it was stop(demonetize) in 1794.
  2. Tithe:- A tax that was take by Church. It was 1/10th of the agriculture produce.
  3. Taille:- Tax directly paid to the government(direct tax).
  4. Indirect tax:- Salt tax or tobacco tax.

4. Intellectual Causes of French revolution

  1. Jean Jacques Rousseau:- The carried forward the idea of proposing a form of government based on the social court act(his book- The Social Contract).
  2. John Cocke:- He gave the idea to refuse the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of Monarch. (his book- Two Creation of the Government).
  3. Montesquieu:- He carried forward the idea of division of power of government in legislature, executive, and judiciary(his book- The Spirit of Laws).

5. Role of Middle Class in the French revolution

  • The middle class was educated and wealthy.
  • They thought that privileges by birth should be abolish.
  • These demanded equality before law and freedom for all.
  • Their ideas were carried forward by philosophers through their book.
  • Businessmen, manufacturing, trader, and lawyers, etc came under the middle class.

Fact:- The idea of the legislature, executive, and judiciary is adopt by the U.S.A.

6. The Famine of 1788 – 1789

  • There was a devastating famine that happened in France in 1788.
  • It happen because the crops was destroy.
  • Due to starvation(hunger), many people died and no help was give by the Monarch. So the people led the revolution.

7. Financial help to 13 US colonies

  • There was a debt of 2 billion livres on the France government.
  • Their total revenue was less than government expenditure.
  • The government pays 3/4 of total revenue on interest.
  • Instead of all problems they give financial help to 13 U.S.A. colonies and helped them in their freedom.

8. The Fall of Bastille

  • On the morning of 14th July 1789, the king ordered his troops to enter cities.
  • King ordered troops because the people destroyed the baking shops due to an increase in prices.
  • People misunderstand it, they thought the king ordered to kill them.
  • The people gathered to the town hall and formed a Militia(military).
  • They attacked on the government building in search of arms.
  • They went to the eastern side of Paris there they attacked ‘Bastille'(this fort is the symbol of king despotism).
  • There they free the prisoners and looted the food grains and also they killed the commander.
  • They sold expensive stone like a diamond in the market.
  • It was the beginning of the French revolution.
The French Revolution: Watch NOW!

What was the role of the philosopher in the French Revolution? (imp.)

  1. Jean Jacques Rousseau:- The carried forward the idea of proposing a form of government based on the social court act. (his book- The Social Contract).
  2. John Cocke:- He gave the idea to refuse the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of Monarch. (his book- Two Creation of the Government).
  3. Montesquieu:- He carried forward the idea of division of power of government in legislature, executive, and the judiciary. (his book- The Spirit of Laws).

The Outbreak of the Revolution

What do you mean by Estate general?

  • It was a political body. It had 300 representatives of noble and clergy and 600 representatives of 3rd estate.
  • Every estate had one vote. This meeting of the Estate general was called up by the monarch. Last time, it was held in 1614.

Explain the meeting of the estate of general held on 5th May 1789? (imp.)

  • The meeting was called by Louis XVI at the hall of Versailles.
  • The meeting aimed to decide New taxes.
  • There were 300 representative noble and clergies and 600 representatives of 3rd estate.
  • Peasant, artist and women was not allow to participate in the meeting. Each state had one vote.
  • But 3rd estate demanded every person had one vote(this idea of Russo according to his book The Social Contract).
  • The monarch refused the demand of 3rd estate.
  • The 3rd estate walks out of the Hall and sit-in protest.

What was the Tennis Court Oath(20th June 1789)? (imp.)

  • After, the failure of a meeting of the estate general, the third estate gathered in a tennis court at ‘Versailles‘.
  • They declared themselves a ‘National Assembly’.
  • They decided to formulate a constitution. The sword not to disperse fill the constitution was not draft.
  • This was led by Mirabeau(noble) and Abbe Sieyes.

Write a short note of the Revolt of a peasant?

  • Due to severe winter, the crops were destroy.
  • Hence, the price of the bread was increase. Bakers exploited poor people.
  • Bakers closed their shops and did not sell the bread.
  • After standing long hours in line, the people entered the shops and destroyed the shop.
  • The king ordered his troops to move into the city(Paris).
  • People misunderstood it and they attacked on the Bastille.

What was the Fall of Bastille in Detail? (V. imp.)

  • The cause of the french revolution was the fall of Bastille.
  • There were so many causes of the french revolution but the main reason was the increase in the taxes.
  • The taxation system was not good because of taxes paid by only 3rd estate.
  • The form of the government was a monarchy.
  • Tithe & Taille taxes were pay by the peasant.
  • Clergies and Nobles were recruitment for the higher post.
  • By the above-mentioned causes, the people revolted on 14th July 1789.
  • In the morning, 14th July 1789 the king ordered his troops to enter in the city(Paris).
  • People misunderstood it, and they thought that the ordered to kill them.
  • They gathered in front of town hall and formed a ‘Militia’ and attacked on the government building.
  • People collected arms(guns, bombs) from government buildings.
  • And move toward the East of the city and attacked on the Bastille(A fort, symbol of the king deposition).
  • They killed the commander of Bastille and freed the prisons.
  • They looted the food grains and expensive stones like gold, silver, diamond, etc. and sold these stones in the market.
fall of bastille
Fall of Bastille

Fact:- Fall of Bastille was the beginning of French Revolution

What happened on the night of 4th August 1789?

  • On this day, the national assembly passed a ‘Degree’.
  • It abolished the feudal system.
  • All the privileges given to clergies and nobles were abolish.
  • The tithe was abolish. Land owned by the church was confiscate.
  • As a result, the government acquired 2 billion Livre (its currency).
  • The power of Monarch was made limited.
  • The Monarch accepted all the conditions of the national assembly.

France Become a Constitutional Monarchy

Write down about the declaration of right to men and citizens?

The constitution began to the declaration of the right to men and citizens. It includes rights like:-

  • Right to liberty.
  • Freedom of speech.
  • Freedom of opinion.
  • Equality before law.
  • Natural right.

All the rights (above mention) of the citizen were prohibit by the Estate.

When the National assembly completed the constitution? And what was the new format of the government?

  • The national assembly completed the drafting of the constitution in 1791. They limit the power of the monarch.
  • The government was divide into Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary.
  • The legislative body was a national assembly, it consists of 745 members. These 745 members were elected by the voters.
  • The men above 25 years of age and who paid 3 days’ salary as a tax had the right to vote called an active citizen.
  • The passive citizen was not allowed to vote e.g. women & men below 15 years of age.

Who was Jean-Paul Marat?

  • He was a revolutionary journalist.
  • He thought that constitutional monarchy was not fair because the right to vote was given to high tax high(rich) taxpayers.
  • And the poor had no right to vote.

What were the political symbols?(imp.)

  1. The broken chain – It was a symbol of becoming free.
  2. The bundle of rods or fasces – It was the symbol of strength and unity.
  3. The eye within a triangle – It was a symbol of knowledge.
  4. Radiating light eye – The rays of sun keep away the clouds of ignorance.
  5. Sceptre – It was the symbol of royal power.
  6. Snake biting its tail to arm(a ring) – It was the symbol of eternity a ring has neither beginning nor end.
  7. Red Phrygian cap – Cops were by slavers after becoming free.
  8. Blue, white, red – The national color of France.
  9. The winged woman – the Personification of law.
  10. The law tablet – It shows that everyone is equal before the law.

France Abolished Monarchy & Become a Republic

Why the condition of France was tense after the formation of a constitutional monarchy?

  • The king(Louis XVI) accepted the constitutional monarchy.
  • But, he entered into secret negotiations with Austria and Persia.
  • These countries tried to suppress the entrance and re-established monarchy.
  • But when national assembly knew about it they voted in April 1792 and decided to attack on Persia.
  • The male citizen participated in the war.
  • Economic difficulties was face by the citizen.
  • Men were fighting and women were left their task(care child, cooking) and start earning and then looking at their families.

What was ‘Marseillaise’?

  • It was the national anthem of France and composed by ‘Roget-De-L-Isle’.
  • Marseillaise was sung by the soldiers during the war with Austria and Persia.
  • Marseillaise was first sung by volunteers of Marseillaise when they marched in Paris.

Write a short note on ‘Jacobin-Club’? (imp.)

  • It was a political club.
  • It got its name from a farmer, convent St. Jacob in Paris.
  • The members called(Jacobians).
  • It included the less prosperous people:-
    • Peasants,
    • Shoe-Maker,
    • Watch-Maker,
    • Party-cooks,
    • Artisan,
    • Painter,
    • Shopkeeper.
  • Their leader was “Maximilian Robes Pierre”.
  • Jacobian was wearing long strip trousers and red-caps.
  • These groups were also known as Sans-culotte.
  • But, women were not wearing this type of cloth.
  • They did this to make themselves different from the fashionable group(knee-breeches).
  • There are two revolutionary activities do by Jacobean.
    • Summer 1792:- Jacobean planned to arrest a large number of Persians because they revolt against the short supplies and high price of goods
    • Morning of 10th August:- Jacobians attacked the palace of Tuileries. They killed the guards. And made the kings hostage for several hours.

Write down about the newly elected convection?

  • After 10th August, male are right to vote.
  • In it, every male of 21 years old had the right to vote. There were no foundation of tax payment.
  • The newly elected assembly war is known as the ‘Convention’ instead of the National Assembly.
  • On 21st September 1792, the Convention abolished Monarchy.
  • The form of the Government was Republic.
King Louis XVI
King Louis XVI
Why Louis XVI die?
  • On 21st January 1793, he was Guillotine and he had charges of Treason(disloyalty).
  • He has execute publicity at ‘De-La-Concorde’ and after some time his wife ‘Marie Antoinette’ was also Guillotine.

Region of Terror

Write a short note on ‘Region of Terror’?

  • The period 1793-1794 was refer to as the region of terror.
  • Robespierre was the head of Government.
  • They adopted the policy of severe control and punishment.
  • He killed all those who oppose the Republic e.g. Nobles, Clergies, and members of the political party.
  • The person who opposed him, they were Guillotine.

Meaning of Guillotined:- The guillotine was a device, consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was beheaded. It was named after Dr. Guillotine who invented it.

What was the law adopt by Robes Pierre during the ‘Region of Terror’?

  • Maximum sailing price for wages and price.
  • Peasant was found to send their grain in cities.
  • Meat and bread were rationed and white flour was forbidden.
  • All of the citizens were required to eat equality bread.
  • The team sir & madam was removed and all people were called citizens.
  • The church was shut down and their building was converted into an office.
Why was Robespierre die?
  • Robespierre used his policy to serve to control and punishment very hardly.
  • He was even opposed by his own supporters.
  • His supporter wants moderation.
  • Robespierre was convicted by a court in July 1794.
  • He was arrested the next day he was Guillotined.

Explain the directory rule in France?

  • After the fall of the Jacobian Government, the richer(wealthier) section caused the power.
  • The new constitution was formed and there were two legislative bodies.
  • And there were five directors under executives.
  • They did not repeat the weakness of the Robespierre Government.
  • There was always conflict between the legislative and the directors.
  • This resulted in the fall of directory rule in France.
  • A new military Government came into existence under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte.

The Role of Women in the France revolution

What was the condition of women(3rd estate) in France?

  • The condition of women was not satisfactory(3rd estate).
  • Most women work in houses of landlords, clergies, and nobles.
  • They sold flowers, vegetables, fruits.
  • They did not access on the job training.
  • Only the daughter of Clergy and nobles went to a convent(school).
  • Working women cook, fetch water, queue(line) up for bread, and look after their children.
  • Their wages were lower than men’s.

What was the revolutionary activities of women to fight for their right during the French revolution?

  • Women formed a political club and they started wrote their articles in newspapers and magazines.
  • There was 60 political club at that time, but the famous was one. They demanded equal political rights given as men.
  • But in the constitutional monarchy in 1791, they did not have the right to vote and in convection also they did not have the right to vote.

What steps were taken by the revolutionary government to improve the condition of women?

  • They opened schools for women and education for women was compulsory.
  • Their father could not force them to marry against their will.
  • Marriage was registered. Divorce was made legal.
  • Training for job opportunities was provided.
What was the reaction of the Robespierre government against revolutionary women?
  • Women’s political club was closed. Revolutionary women were executed(killed).

Who was ‘Olympe-De-Gouges’?

  • She was a revolutionary woman and she was against the constitution in 1791.
  • In 1791, she wrote ‘The declaration of the right of women and citizen’.
  • She addressed it to the Queen and the national assembly.
  • She was executed(killed) in 1793 for treason.

Fact:- Women’s got the right to vote in France in 1946.

What was the declaration of the right of women and citizens?
  • It was written by Olympe-De-Gauge.
  • Equal voting rights.
  • Right to education.
  • Right to freedom(from Birth).
  • Equal voting rights.
  • Right to a government job.

The Abolition of Slavery

Describe the slave trade in France?

  • Slave trade started in the 17th century.
  • These slaves brought from Caribbean Island(Martina Guadalupe and San Domingo).
  • There was a shortage of labor needed for coffee, tobacco, sugar, indigo and plantation work, etc.
  • The problem of shortage labor was meet by the triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa, and America.
  • Bardeause & Nantes were the famous ports for the slave trade.
  • The slave brought from the local person of Africa.
  • They were transferred through the ship.
  • They sold to plantation workers.

When was slavery abolish?

  • In the 18th century, these were the critecise for slavery work in the national assembly.
  • But they did not make any law.
  • Because they did not want to oppose businessmen and traders because they got money from them.
  • In 1794, the convention abolished slavery(Jacobian Government).
  • But after 10 years in 1804, it was reintroduce by Nepolean Bonaparte.
  • Slavery was finally abolish in French colonies in 1848.

Which important law came into existence after the Fall of Bastille?

  • Abolition of censorship happened in the summer of 1789.
  • In old Regine books, printed picture, newspapers and plays before its publication approved by the king.
  • After the declaration of the right of freedom of speech & expression to be a natural right.
  • These were discuss in cities & country side about the activities of the government.
  • Plays, songs and festive processions attracted large numbers of people.
  • With the help of abolition of censorship people were talking about the idea of liberty and justice.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte

Explain the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte? (imp.)

  • After the failure of directory rule in France, Napoleon Bonaparte‘s Government(military government) came into existence.
  • He started conquering the neighboring countries and dispossesses the old dynasty.
  • In new kingdoms, he placed his family members.
  • Initially, many welcomed Napoleon as a liberator who would bring freedom for the people. But soon the Napoleonic armies came to be viewed everywhere as an invading force.
  • He introduced new laws like:-
    i. Protection of private properties.
    ii. Uniform system of weight.
    iii. Measurement provided in decimal numbers.
  • He becomes a doctor and defeated in 1815, in the battle of ‘Waterloo‘.
  • Monarchy once again reintroduced.

Fact:- Feudal system abolished in August 4th 1789.

Legacy of the French revolution

  • Liberty & democratic rights become the most important things in the french revolution.
  • These things spread from France to the rest of the Europe during the 19th century.
  • Later this idea was adopted by Tipu sultan and Rammohan ray which were Indian revolutionary strugglers.

End: The French Revolution Chapter

About- The French Revolution Class 9 Notes

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)↓

What was the French Revolution short summary?

French revolution was an accident that happen in France and time period was 14th July 1789 to 1799. In this incident Monarchy was Louis XVI who belongs to the Bourbon dynasty and he was king at the time of the French revolution. There is so many causes of French revolution but famous was Fall of Bastille incident. And between this incident Louis XVI die on 21st January 1793, he was Guillotine and he had charges of Treason(disloyalty).

Write a short note on the fall of bastille.

In the morning, 14th July 1789 the king ordered his troops to enter in the city(Paris), people misunderstood it, and they thought that the ordered to kill them. They gathered in front of town hall and formed a ‘Militia’ and attacked on the government building and people collected arms(guns, bombs) from government buildings. They killed the commander of Bastille and freed the prisons and looted the food grains and expensive stones like gold, silver, diamond, etc. and sold these stones in the market.

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