The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes: Complete & Easy(in 2020)
Introduction:- In The Making of a Global World-class 10 notes we rad about Rinderpest, Role of technology, mass consumption and so many other topics we read in The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes. So let’s start it.
What is Globalization?
- Its an interconnection of one country with another country in the form of foreign trade and foreign investment.
- Globalization has accelerated since the 19th century due to advances in transportation and communication technology.
Explain Silk Route
- It was a trade route.
- It linked China with Western countries.
- Its name derive because the westbound Chinese silk was transfer through this route.
- It existed before the Christian Era & continue till the 15th century.
- Historian identified several routes by land & by sea.
- It connects the vast region of Asia with Europe, Northern America.
- Chinese pottery, species, precious metal like gold, silver were transfer from this route.
- Christian Missionaries, Muslim Preacher, Buddhists traveled from his route.
- It’s also known as a noodle and its origin was China.
- It was known as spaghetti in the west.
- ‘Sevian’ which are used in India.
- Food item like potato, soya, groundnut, maize, tomato, chili, and sweet potato origin is in America.
- It was not known to our ancestors until five centuries ago.
- This food was introduce in Europe and Asia after Columbus discover America.
Write a short note on Irish potato famine.
- When Christopher Columbus discover the vast land America new crop potato was introduced to Europe & Asia.
- Europe’s poor became dependent on the potato.
- Ireland’s poorest peasant became so dependent on the potato that when diseases destroyed the potato crop in the mid-1840s, many died of starvation.
- During the great Irish potato famine(1845 to 1849) around 10,00,000 people died of starvation.
- Many were migrated to oversea in search of work.
The seashell(in hindi cowdi) were used as a currency from Maldives to China & East Africa.
Explain what mean when we say that the world shrank in the 1500s (16th century)?
- The pre-modern world shrank greatly in the 16th century after European sailor found the sea route to Asia and also cross the western ocean to America.
- This new invention introduced the flow of trade, conquest, disease & migrated.
- The Indian subcontinent or ocean was known as a bustling trade with good, people & knowledge.
- The entry of European helped to expand on redirect the trade toward Europe.
- Before its discovery of America, it had no contact with the rest of the world for millions of years.
- But from the 16th century, after it was discover the trade was increased with abundant crop and mineral.
The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped the colonization of America flow?
- The world shrank during the 16th century due to conquest and disease.
- When America was discover by Columbus it attracts the European due to its vast land, abundant crop, mineral & precious metal.
- Precious metal(special silver) found in mine(present-day Peru & Mexico) increased the wealth of Europe. It also financed the trade of Europe with Asia.
- The colonization of America started in the mid 16th century.
- Portuguese and Spanish conquest America.
What was the problem experience by Europe till the 19th century or migration?
- Until the 19th century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe.
- The population increased, cities were crowded.
- The deadly disease was widespread and religious conflict was prevailing.
- Religion dissent was punish. So, a thousand of people migrated from Europe to America.
- People were migrated for plantation work and also my work.
More than 3000 BC there was an active coastal trade between Indus valley civilization(present day west Asia and other countries).
- El-Dorado:- It was a fabled city of gold in South America.
- Dissenter:- A person who refuses to accept the old custom & religion.
- Biological warfare:- The destruction made by smallpox in the American continent brought by European conqueror.
- John Winthrop:- He was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony in New England. His quotation”smallpox signaled god’s blessing for the colonish”.
A World Economy Take Shape
Corn Law complete explanation?
- It was a restriction on the import of corn & agriculture items in Britain in the late 18th century.
- Reason for demanding of the abolition of corn law by industrialist and urban developer:-
- Due to an increase in population, the demand for agriculture items increased.
- As the industries grew the demand for agriculture products went up.
- This results in an increase in the prices of food grain.
- The government was pressurized by the landed group and introduced the corn law.
- Unhappy with the increase in the price of food item the industrialist and urban developer demand to abolish the corn law.
3. Effect of abolition on the corn law:-
- Food items could be imported.
- The price of corn & agriculture items reduced.
- British peasant left their field uncultivated because they were not able to compete with imports.
- Thousand of men and women were thrown out of work.
- Thousand of men and women migrated.
- Due to industrialization the income of people increased and due to the fall in prices of agriculture item demand was increased, it resulted in more imports.
- To fulfill the demand of Britain many countries like America, Australia, Russia, and Eastern Europe cleared their land and started cultivation.
- This also helped in the movement of capital and labor.
- The railway was built to link the agriculture region to the port.
- A new harbor had built, the old port was expanded.
- Agriculture labor was transferred to this place.
- Building a home was made for agriculture labor.
- All these things need capital and new cargoes were built.
- Capital flows from a financial center such as London.
- There was a shortage of labor in America & Australia.
- This was handle by more migration from Europe to America & Australia.
- There were 50 million people who migrate Europe to America & Australia.
How a global agriculture economy had taken shape by the 1890s?
- Food was now brought from distant places instead of nearby villages or towns.
- It was grown by agriculture laborers, who had come from distant places instead of a farmer tilling his own land.
- It was transfer by railway or ship through a low paid man force.
- These agricultural labor came or brought from Europe, Asia, Africa & the Caribbean region.
What are Canal colonies?
- The British Indian govt. built a network of an irrigation canal in West Punjab.
- The main motive of this canal is to make semi-desert land into fertile land.
- On these land mainly cotton and wheat are grown for export.
- The area which is irrigated a new canal is called canal colonies.
- And these peasants are settle from other parts of Punjab.
Role of technology explain? (imp.)
- Technology played an important role in globalization.
- The major technology innovation were:-
- Railway:- Helped to connect with the agriculture region.
- Steamship:- Helped in transporting goods across the ocean.
- Telegraph:- Helped in communicating economic transactions.
3. A good example of refrigerator technology helped in trade of meat in 1870’s:-
- Till the 1870’s animal was shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there.
- But there were many problems in the live shipping of animals these problems like Live animals took a lot of space, many died in the ship, Fell ill, lost weight or became unfit to eat, Meat was expensive, poor were not able to afford it.
- After the introduction of the refrigerated ship, the transport of perishable goods became easy.
- Now animal was slaughtered at the starting point in America, Australia & New Zealand and then transport to Europe as frozen meat.
- It reduced the shipping cost, hence the prices of meat reduced.
- Now poor were able to afford the meat and add variety in their diet.
- Better living conditions promoted social peace in the country.
Late 19th Century
What was the darker side of the 19th-century world?
- The Portuguese and Spanish used germ of smallpox to conquer local communities of America.
- The employer used many methods to recruit labor like increase taxes.
- Inheritance law was change so that peasants were displace from there land.
- In the 19th century, thousand of indentured labor were migrated from one place to another there living and working conditions were very harsh.
- Europeans took control over the lowest and another natural resource.
Colonization processes in which the people of one territory make control over the political economy and society of other territories and exploit it economically.
In the late 19th century at a map of Africa, some countries borderline run straight as if they were drawn using a ruler why?
- In the late 19th century, Africa was under the control of much European power like:-
- In 1885 the big European power met in Berlin to complete the covering up of Africa between them.
- The big imperial power of that time was Britain and France.
- Belgium and Germany became a new colonial power.
- It the late 1890’s America also became a colonial power by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.
Who was Sir Henry Morton Stanley?
- He was a journalist and explorer.
- Sir Henry Morton Stanley was spent by the New York Herald to find Livingstone(a missionary & explorer in Africa).
- He went to Africa with arm, hunter, warrior, and labor to help him.
- He investigated African terrain and mapped different regions.
- These things help the conquest of America.
- At that time this explorer was linked to imperial projects.
What was Rinderpest?
- It was a cattle plague and it arrived in Africa in the late 1880s.
- Rinderpest was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa.
- It enters Africa in the East and it reached Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892.
- Rinderpest reached the cape(African southernmost tip) five years later(1892 to 1897).
- Along the way, rinderpest killed 90% of the cattle.
How did it benefit the European?
- Europeans attracted to Africa due to its vast resource, land, and mineral.
- In Africa they wanted to do the plantation work, mining to grow crops, and export to European to get more profit.
- But there was a problem face by European in Africa, that was the ‘shortage of labor’.
- They adopted many methods of recruit labor but rinderpest killed 90% of the cattle of Africa which destroyed the livelihood of the Africans.
- The rest of the cattle resources were control by Europeans.
- It enabled European to conquer Africa.
What was the livelihood of the Africans?
- There was a vast resource of land and mineral in Africa.
- African had a small population.
- African livelihood was totally dependent on their land and livestock and Africans rarely worked for a wage.
How European attracted to Africa in late 19th century?
- In the late 19th century European were attract to Africa due to its vast resource of land and minerals.
- Europeans came to Africa to establish plantation and mine to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe.
- There was a problem faced by Europeans that was the shortage of labor.
What was the method adopt by the European to recruit and retain labor in Africa in the late 19th century?
- Europeans used many methods to recruit and retain labor.
- Heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for a wage in plantation and mine.
- Inheritance law was changed so that peasants were displaced from the land.
- According to inheritance law, only one member of a family was allowed to inherit as a result others were pushed into the labor market.
- Mine were confined in compound mineworkers were not allow to move from that.
How the indentured labor migration from India illustrates the two-sided nature of the 19th-century world? (imp.)
- Indentured labor is bonded or contracted labor which hired on contract for a specific employee for a specific period of time.
2. Work is done by indentured labor:-
- Plantation work,
- Construction of roadway or railway.
3. The area from where indentured labor was picked:-
- Central India,
- Dry district of Tamil Nadu,
- The present-day area of eastern U.P.
4. The reason, why Indian were ready to work as Indentured labour:-
- Because cottage industries were decline and land rent was increased.
- The land was cleared for mine and plantation.
- When poor people were failed to pay their rent or deeply in debt.
- Then they were forced in search of work.
5. Destination of India indentured labor:-
- The Caribbean Island(include Trinidad, Guyana, Suriname), Mauritius Fiji.
- Tamil migrate went to Ceylon and Malaya.
- Indentured labor was also recruited for tea plantation in Assam.
6. Recruitment process of Indentured labor:-
- Indentured labor was recruited by ‘Agent’.
- The agent paid a small commission.
- The agent provides false information about the final destination, mode of travel, nature of work, living condition, etc.
- Sometimes agents forcibly recruited the less willing to migrate.
7. The problem faced by indentured labor:-
- False information was given by the agent.
- On arrival at the plantation, labor found the condition to be different from what they had imagined.
- Living and working conditions were harsh.
- There were few legal rights for them.
- Many of them escaped into the forest.
- If they caught, they faced severe punishment.
“How did the indentured labor discover their own way of survival” Explain.
Many of the indentured labor escaped into the jungle:-
1. Hosay in Trinidad:-
- They started celebrating festivals like Hosay.
- Hosay was a riotous carnival.
- Hosay was celebrated for Imam Hussein.
- In Hosay both Hindu and Muslim, who had migrated from India participated.
- It was a religious movement born out of the black slum of Jamaica.
- It was made famous by Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley. Many migrants join it.
3. Chutney Music:-
- Indentured labor started rating its own way of enjoyment like Chutney music.
- Chutney music has been created by Indo-Caribbeans people.
- This music drive element from India film song.
- It was popular in Trinidad and Guyana.
When was the center of trade moved westward?
- Until the 18th century, China & India were the world’s richest countries. The center of trade was Indian subcontinent from world trade and went
- But from the 15th century, China cut off itself from world trade and went into isolation.
- China reduced its role and the rising importance of America moved the center of world trade westward.
- Europe now emerged as the center of world trade.
Indian Entrepreneur Abroad
Write a short note on Indian banker and trader?
1. Indian Banker:-
- Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiar are the famous Indian banker.
- Their main aim was to finance the export of poor service.
- They financed export agriculture in central and southeast Asia For this purpose they used their own fund or borrowed money from European banks.
- Indian Banker had a very large or well-developed system to transferred money from one place to another place.
- They developed some corporate organizations for this purpose.
2. Indian trader:-
- Hyderabadi Sindhi trader was a famous Indian trader.
- They followed European colonies into Africa or another part of the world.
- From the 1860’s they established a well-developed business center at a busy port worldwide.
- There they sold local or imported curious tourists.
Write a short note on Indian trade during the 19th century?
Indian trader:- Indian trade was decline and reason for decline was:-
- The import tariff was increase by the British govt.
- Fine cotton produce by India was export to Europe.
- As industrialization was growing in Britain, the British cotton manufacture also increased.
- So they pressured the British govt. to restrict the cotton import and protect local industries.
- The British govt. increased the tariff on cotton or cloth import.
- As a result, the Indian trade of fine cotton began to decline.
- Shift competition faced in the international market by Indian textile.
- British manufacture started selling their cloth in the international market.
- Their Indian textile faced stiff competition hence their export declined.
What did Indian export?
- The export of manufacturing goods declined.
- The export of raw material increased.
- Between 1812 and 1871, the share of raw cotton export increased from 5% to 35%.
- Indigo was export which was use in dyeing cloths.
- Opium grew in India and export in China.
What was Britain trade surplus? How it was used by Britain?
- Trade surplus:- It was the difference between export and import. It raised when the export is more than imports.
- British trade surplus:- The value of British export to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. So it created a trade surplus for Britain.
What is a multilateral settlement system and how it works?
- When one country trade deficit with another country is settled by its trade surplus with the third country that is a multilateral settlement system.
- Britain used trade surplus with India to settle its trade deficit with another country.
What was the importance of the Indian trade for Britisher?
- Home charge:- British’s trade surplus in India helped Britisher to pay the ‘home charge’ it includes:- salary to Britisher official, the amount paid to British trader, interest on payment of an external debt, and pension to Britisher official in India.
- Major supplier of cotton:- India was a major supplier of raw cotton to Britain which was required in the cotton textile industry of Britain.
- Supplier of indentured worker:- Many indentured workers from Bihar, U.P., and Central India migrated to other countries to work in mine and plantation.
First World War
- It was fought in Europe.
- The time period of the first world war was 1914-1918, it was started in August 1914.
- It was fought between two power:-
– Allies power:- Britain, France, Russia, and later joined by the U.S.A.
– Central power:- Germany, Austria, Hungry, Ottoman, Turkey.
- First modern industrial:-
– It was fought between a world-leading industrial nation.
– a Large number of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, and chemical weapons were used.
- Million of solider had recruited from all around the world sent to the front line on ship and train.
– 9 million dead.
– 20 million injured.
– Most of the killed and maimed were men of working age.
- As Britain was occupied with war for four years, it took a loan from the USA public and USA bank to finance it was an expenditure.
Post World Recovery
Why post-war economic recovery proved difficult?
- Britain which was the world-leading economy in the pre-war period now faced an economic crisis.
- Industries had developed in India and Japan replacing Britain.
- Britain was not able to complete it with Japan.
- Britain had borrowed a large sum from the U.S.A., it had burdened with huge extent debt.
- Production was decrease and Unemployment was increase.
- Many agricultural economic were also in crises because:-
- Before was eastern Europe was the major supplier of Wheat in the world market.
- Hence Wheat production was expand in Canada, America, and Australia.
- But after the war production of wheat war continued in Eastern Europe.
- But it resulted in more supply of wheat in the world market.
- Hence food grain item decreased rural income declined farmer fell deeper into debt.
How did Henry Ford revolution mass production in the US? Explain.
- Henry Ford adopted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit.
- The assembly line allowed a faster and cheaper way of producing a vehicle.
- It forced the worker to respect a single task mechanically and continuously.
- This increased their efficiency in the single task and speed of the production too.
- This helps in lowering the cost of production.
- T-model forced became the world’s first mass-produced car.
- Henry Ford adopted some method to retain labor:- he doubled the daily wage and banned the trade union in his factories.
Write a short note on mass consumption.
- Mass consumption reduced the cost of production, so the price of goods lowered, now people were able to consume more goods and wage was increase.
- It helped people to afford durable goods like cars, refrigerator washing machines, radio, gramophone player, etc.
- People started purchasing through ‘hire purchase’.
- A House construction loan was granted. It helped in mass consumption.
The Great Depression
What do you know about the great depression? Explain the major factor responsible for the great depression.
- This was a state of economic depression set in the united state of America in 1929.
- The whole world was affected by this.
- This was a period under which most ports of the world experienced.
– The decline in production.
– A decline in Income and trade.
– Fall in price of the good.
- The agriculture sector suffered a lot due to this economic depression.
Factor Responsible For the Great Depression:-
1. Over production in agriculture production:-
- Overproduction in agriculture prices leads to a fall in price.
- As price decreased, agriculture income declined.
- The farmer tried to expand production and beginning a large volume of products to the market to maintain their income but due to this price decreased ever further.
2. Withdrawal of US loan:-
- In the mid-1920s many countries finance their investment through a loan from the U.S.A.
- U.S.A. lender panicked and they stop giving loan oversea data in 1928 loan was granted by U.S.A . to oversea amount 1billion$.
- A year later(1928) it was 1/4th of that amount.
3. Other factor:-
- Some major banks failed and some currencies collapse of the British pound sterling.
- The US doubled the import duty, it affected the world trade.
Explain the impact of the Great depression of 1929 on the U.S.A.?
- There was a drastic fall in the prices.
- The industrialist lowered the wages, hence income declined.
- The farmer could not sell their produce in the market, lead to a decline in agriculture income.
- So due to a decrease in income people were not able to repay the loan that they had borrowed from the bank.
- Hence, the US banking system was collapsed they were unable to recover the investment, collect the loan, and repay deposition.
- In 1933 over 4000 banks had closed.
- In between 1929 to 1932 about 110000 companies were collapse.
- The consumerist prosperity of the 1920s was disappeare.
- Unemployment rate increases.
Explain the impact of the Great depression on the Indian economy.
- Impact on trade:- India’s export and import halved between 1928 to 1934.
- Fall in agriculture prices:- Between 1928 to 1934 wheat price fell by 50%.
- Impact on farmer:-
- The agriculture price decreased.
- It leads to a decrease in agricultural income.
- But colonial govt. refused to decrease the taxes.
- So peasant suffered a let by Great depression.
4. Impact on jute producer of Bengal:-
- Raw jute was produce to make gunny bags.
- But gunny bags export collapsed.
- Because the price decreased by more than 60%.
- Peasant took a loan to produce more but they fell deeper into the debt.
5. Peasant indebtedness increased:-
- Due to this income decrease of agriculture peasants started using up their saving, mortgaged land, and sold their jewelry. They took a loan to survive.
6. Impact on urban developer:-
- The person with a fixed salary like a middle-class salaried employee and town dwelling landowner was not suffer by the Great Depression.’
What two key lessons from economists and politicians drew from the inter-war economy experience?
1st key lesson:-
- Mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption.
- To ensure mass consumption income and employment must be stable.
- The government has to step in to provide stability in price, output, and employment.
2nd key lesson:-
- The influence of the outer world must be controlled on the flow of goods, labor, and capital.
- To archive this govt. should control the influence of the outer world.
What is meant by Bretton Wood agreement explain?
- The Bretton wood conference was held in July 1944 at Bretton Wood in New Hampshire, U.S.A.
- Under this International monetary fund(IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction & Development also known as the world bank was established.
- The main aim of this was to provide economic stability and full employment in the western industrial world.
- Role of IMF:- It was constructed to deal with the external surplus and deficit of its member nation.
- World bank:- It was set up to finance post-war reconstruction.
- Bretton Wood institution is also known as Bretton Wood twins.
- IMF and World bank started there operation in 1947.
- Decision making of the IMF & World bank is controlled by western industrial power.
- U.S.A. has veto power over IMF & World bank.
- Bretton Woods system:-
- The system followed by IMF & World bank is known as the Bretton Wood system.
- A fixed exchange rate was follow.
- Under this, the national currencies of one country are pegged with the dollar at a fixed exchange rate.
- The price of $35 was equal to per ounce of gold.
Importance of Bretton Wood’s in the early post war year?
- Bretton Wood system was helpful in creating/established economic stabling in western industrial countries.
- World trade grew at over 8% annually(1950-1970).
- Income increased 5% annually between 1950-1970.
- Economic growth was stable, no fluctuation in output, income, and employment unemployment was reduced it was reduced to less than 5% in most industrial countries.
- The technology was spreading.
- Developing countries tried to cope with advanced industrial countries.
Decolonization:- It’s a process in which colonized countries make themselves free from the control of other countries, who exploit their resource.
Why from the late 1950’s the Bretton Wood’s institution began to shift their attention more toward developing countries?
- The main aim of Bretton Wood’s was to make economic stability and full employment by providing financial assistance to western industries countries.
- But western industrial countries rapidly re-built their economy they were now less dependent on IMF & World bank.
- Thus from the late 1950s, Bretton Wood’s institution began to help developing countries.
What is G-77?
- G-77 is a group of developing countries. These countries demand NIEO.
- NIEO(New International Economic Order). The demand under NIEO.
- Real control over their natural resource.
- More development assistance (more financial help).
- Fair price for raw material.
- Better access for their manufactured good in developed countries market.
Why the Bretton Wood system (fixed exchange rate) failed?
- IMF and World bank based on the fixed exchange rate system.
- US currency ($) was the principal currency of the world.
- Due to the oversea involvement of the US, the cost rises and it weakened US finance.
- Now US currency was not the principal currency of the world it could not maintain its value in relation to gold.
- Hence, the fixed exchange rate collapsed and a new system of introduced that is a floating exchange rate.
Multinational Corporation are large company which set up their business in two or more than countries that is called MNC’s.
Explain the beginning of ‘globalization’?
- Globalization is the process of the interconnection of one country with another country in terms of foreign trade and foreign investment.
- MNC’s began to shift production operation in low wage Asian countries from the late 1970s.
- After 1949 China came back or returned to the world economy. It helps in the generation of MNC because it was an area where salaries of labor are very low, so many countries of the world began investing in China.
About- The Making of a Global World class 10 notes
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