The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes: Complete & Easy
Introduction:- In The Rise of Nationalism in Europe class 10 notes we read about Nationalism, a statue of liberty, Liberal Nationalism, New middle class and so many other topics we read in The Rise of Nationalism in Europe class 10 notes. So let’s start it.
What is Nationalism?
- It’s a belief system that produces a sense of common identity among the public of a nation.
- Some famous 20th-century nationalist regimes are Adolf Hitler (Germany), Sun Yat-sen (Republic of China), etc.
Basic Concept about Painting
- A French artist Frederic Sorrieu prepared a series of four print in 1848.
- Aim of print was to visualize his dream of a world made up of a democratic & social republic.
- This painting was one of the 4 prints.
- In the painting people of Europe & America were shown.
- The people shown in the painting were of all age & social classes and all were giving homage respect to the statue of liberty.
What is the statue of liberty?
- It was a symbol of liberty.
- At that time artists of that time personified liberty as a female figure.
- On one hand of the statue of liberty was a torch that resembles enlightenment.
- On the other hand, there was a charter of rights of man, and image scattered on earth resembles the absolutist institution.
Nation-state:- A state in which the majority of citizens & rulers develop a sense of common identity & share history.
This painting was Frederic Sorrieu Utopian vision. Explain.
- This painting was Sorrieu’s Utopian vision, a vision of a society that is so ideal and unlikely to exist actually.
- The countries which passed the statue of liberty like the U.S.A. & Switzerland became a nation-state.
- Countries that were in front of the statue of liberty they were very near to become a nation-state like France just reached the statue of liberty with their tricolor flag(white, red, and blue).
- Germany follows France with its tricolor flag(black, red, and gold).
- Countries that did not reach near to the statue, were struggling for liberty.
- From the above Angel, Saint, Priest was giving their blessing.
The French Revolution & The Idea of Nation
What was the various measure introduced by French revolutionaries that create a sense of collective identity among the French people, Explain it?
- More importance was given the idea of La Patrie(the fatherland) and Le Citoyen(the citizen).
- Equal right to all under a new constitution.
- Estate general rename as the national assembly was elect by active citizens.
- A new tricolor french flag was adopt.
- New hymn(national anthem) was compose, the oath was taken.
- The martyr was remember in the name of the nation.
- A Uniform System of weight and measure was adopt.
- The regional language was discouraged
- French became the national language.
- French revolutionary declared that it was the mission to liberate the people of Europe from despotism.
Explain Napoleonic code or civil code of 1804?
- Privilege based on the birth was abolish.
- He secured the right of property.
- He established equality before the law and simplified administrative division.
- Abolished the feudal system.
- The free peasant from serfdom & manorial dues.
- The transport of the communication system was improved
- Peasant, artisan, worker & new businessman enjoyed freedom in their field.
- Uniform law was introduce.
- Standardized weight & measure were adopt.
- The common national currency was introduce to facilitate.
Structure of Society of Europe(in middle 18th century)
- It was the dominant class on the continent.
- They belong to high class and most of them were landlords.
- They were less in population.
- The member of this class was united by a common way of life.
- They owned estate in the countryside and also the townhouse.
- They spoke French for the purpose of diplomacy(politics).
2. Peasantry group:-
- They were large in population and belong to the low class.
- They were landless and tenants.
- In the western part of Europe, most lands were form by tenants.
- While in eastern and central Europe the land was farmed by serfs.
3. New middle class:-
- With the growth of industrialization, a new commercial group came into existence called the new middle class.
- They were educated people like businessman, merchant, teacher, lawyer, etc.
- They were wealthy and educated.
- Their demand was liberal nationalism.
Ideas of national unity in the early 19th century in Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. Explain it.
- The ideology of liberalism was an important factor that promoted the sense of nationalism and nation-state.
- The term liberalism had been derived from the Latin word ‘liber’ which means free.
- At that time the word liberalism used differently in the political sphere and is the economic sphere.
- Liberalism used in the political sphere:-
- It means govt. by consent.
- It stood for the end of autocracy.
- They also demanded the abolition of property rights.
- Liberals demanded a constitution.
- Equality before law.
Equality before law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. Are you agree with that explanation.
- Yes, equality before the law did not stand for universal suffrage.
- During the French revolution right to was vote was given to active citizens (property owing men).
- Under the Jacobian government, all men of 21 years of age got the right to vote.
- Under Napoleon‘s government, limited suffrage was given women were subjected to the authority of father and husband.
- Throughout the 19th century, women and non-proper men organized movement demanding equal political rights.
Liberalism in Economics Sphere
- Here liberalism stood for freedom of the market.
- Removal of state restriction on the movement of goods and capital.
- In the first half of the 19th century in the German-speaking region. There was a confederation of 39 states.
- Each of these passed their own currency weight and measure.
- A merchant traveling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods had no pass through the customs barrier.
- And pay custom duties of 5% at each one of them.
- Duties were applying accordingly to the weight or measure of the goods.
- As each region has its own weight and measurement it involves time-consuming calculation.
- The measure of cloth was Elle, which in each region stood for a different length like:- Frankfurt – 54.7cm, Nuremberg – 65.6cm.
- It was a customs union formed in 1831 on the initiative of Prussia.
- Later it was join by many German states.
- The union abolished tariff barriers.
- And reduced the number of currencies from 30 to 2.
- Its an idea to conserve the traditional institution such as monarchy, the church, and the social hierarchies.
- In 1815, Napoleon was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815 by European power Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia.
- With the defeat of Napoleon conservatism started in Europe.
- To draw up the settlement of Europe they met in Vienna.
- There they signed a treaty ‘treaty of Vienna’.
Treaty of Vienna(1815)
- In 1815, representative of European power Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria defeated Napoleon in the Waterloo.
- After they met in Vienna for the settlement of Europe.
- The meeting was hosted by the Austrian chancellor Duke Metternich.
- The basic object of this treaty was to undo most of the change that had come in Europe during the Napoleon period.
- The monarchy was continued in France, the Bourbon dynasty restored to power in France revolution.
- France lost its territories which was expanded by Napoleon.
- The German confederation of 39 states was left untouched.
- A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent France’s expansion in the future.
- Austria was given control of northern Italy.
- Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
- The main intention was to restore the monarchy.
Nature of Conservation in Europe set up in 1815
- It was autocratic and if anybody criticizes or opposes conservation they were punish.
- No one can question the legitimacy of autocratic govt.
- Censorship was introduce to check out magazines, book poems, stories, etc.
Giuseppe Mazzini- A Revolutionary
- He was a famous Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807.
- He became a member of the secret society ‘the Carbonari’.
- In 1831, at the age of 24, he was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
- He formed two secret societies (a) Young Italy (b) Young Europe.
- Young Italy was set in Marseille and young Berne was in Europe.
- Its members were from Poland, France, and the German state.
- He believed that:-
- should not be divided into small states and kingdom.
- Italy should be a unified republic and be a democratic country.
The Age of Revolution(1830-48)
- The revolution in 1830-1848 was led by liberals.
- The new middle class was called liberals.
- These revolutions were led by the new middle class and they were school teachers, clerks, professors, lawyers & members of the commercial class.
1st Revolution(July revolution)
- The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830.
- The Bourbon king who restore power in 1815 during conservation was now overthrown by liberal nationalists (new middle class).
- They (liberal nationalist) established a constitutional monarchy.
- Louis Philippe was the head of the govt.
- Metternich remarked on this revolution ‘when France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold’.
- At the same time in July, the revolution was started in Brussels, the city of Belgium.
- They got freed from the control of the united kingdom of the Netherlands.
Green War of Independence
- Greek was under the control of the Ottoman empire since the 15th century.
- The struggle for independence started in 1821.
- They got support from other Greek living in Exile, west Europe who respect Greek culture, post, and artists.
- An English poet Lord Byron collected funds for the war.
- And later went on war to fight where he died of fever in 1824.
- In 1832, after the Treaty of Constantinople Greece got independence.
What was Romanticism?
- It was a cultural movement.
- Because culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.
- It happened through art, poetry, stories, music, language, etc.
Johann Gottfried Herder(1744-1803)
- He was a German philosopher.
- He believed that there must be a true culture among the citizen.
- And it was created through folk songs, folk dance, folk poetry, etc.
- These things helped in nation-building.
Explain the role of language in developing in the nationalist sentiment in Europe?
- Poland was occupied by Russia.
- The Polish language was force out of the school and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
- In 1831, an armed rebellion happen against Russian, but it was crush by Russian.
- Following this member of Clergies and Bishops in Poland began to use Polish as a weapon of a national struggle.
- Polish was used for a church gathering and all religious instruction.
- As a result, a large number of Clergies and Bishops were sent to jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as a punishment for their refusal to preach in Russia.
- Polish becomes a symbol of the national struggle.
About- The Rise of Nationalism in Europe class 10 notes
In The Rise of Nationalism in Europe class 10 notes we read about Nationalism, Liberal Nationalism, Romanticism, Treaty of Vienna and so many other topics we read in The Rise of Nationalism in Europe class 10 notes. So read this notes completely and I hope you like this notes and if you like then please give your valuable feedback in the comment box(below).
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