Water Resources Class 10 Notes [EASY to LEARN; 2021]

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Water Resources Class 10 Notes

Introduction:- I know that you searching a complete Water Resources Class 10 Notes that are very easy to learn, easy to understand, and also important question contains. So you visit the right place in this article we cover every topic from your NCERT Geography- Water Resources. So let’s start our Water Resources chapter with a simple question- WHAT IS WATER SCARCITY?

What is Water Scarcity?

  • Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demand of water usage with in a region.
  • It already affects every continent and around 2.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year
Water Resources Class 10 Notes
Water Resources Class 10 Notes

Causes of Water Scarcity

These are two aspect of water scarcity:-

  1. The quantitative aspect of water scarcity,
  2. The qualitative aspect of water scarcity.

Quantitative aspect of Water Scarcity:-

  • Over exploitation:-
    • Over exploitation of water, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups are the main cause of water scarcity.
  • Growing population:-
    • A large population need even more water for various purposes. Large scale farming also needs lot of water for irrigation.
    • Demand for water is increasing.
  • Commercialization of crops:- 
    • Due to commercialization of crops, use of chemical fertilizers and insecticide has increased.
    • It would pollute groundwater at many places.
    • Due to this the water has become unfit for human consumption.
  • Construction & Industrialization:- 
    • Construction of building, industries, roadways made groundwater less & growth of industries & no. of MNC’s made worse pressure on existing freshwater resources .
  • Climate:-
    • Due to large scale deforestation the seasonal and annual rainfall has disturbed.

Qualitative aspect of Water Scarcity:-

  • Industrial or domestic waste:-
    • Sewage and industrial effluent are being discharge into rivers which pollute the river water.

Conservation of Water Resource [CBSE 2010]

  • Conservation is the careful preservation and protection of water resources.
  • How to conserve water resource:-
    • To aware the people about the necessity of water & its conservation.
    • To involve people in all activities of water management.
    • People should be aware that freshwater should not be waste in gardening, cleaning toilets and washbasins.
    • Dry up of underground water should be prevent.
    • Water bodies should be kept pollution-free.
    • Over exploitation of resources should be stop.

Type of water resource:-  Surface water, Ground water, Rain water.

Hydraulic Structure in Ancient India

  1. In the 1st century B.C. Sringaverapura near Allahabad had developed a sophisticated(well improved) harvesting system channeling the flood water of river ganga.
  2. During the time of Chandragupta Maurya dams, lakes and irrigation system were widely built.
  3. Evidences of advanced irrigation works have also been found in Kalinga, Nagarjuna Konda(A.P.), Bennur(Karnataka) and Kohlapur.
  4. In 11th century, Bhopal lake one of the largest artificial lakes of that time was built.
  5. In 14th century, the tank of Hauzkhas Delhi was constructed by illtutmish for the purpose of supplying water to Siri fort region. 

Importance of Dams:-

  • Electricity generation,
  • Irrigation,
  • Flood control,
  • Recreation,
  • Fish breeding,
  • Inland navigation,
  • Water supply in domestic and industries.

Meaning of DAM:- Dams are huge and high walls, which are built across the river to hold(impound) water. The water of river is collected in reservoir(lakes).

Limitation of Dams

  • Adverse impact on fertility:-
    • Dams affect the national flow rivers, causing poor sediment flow which leads to the reduction of the fertility of the soil.
  • Adverse impact on aquatic life:-
    • Excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir affects the habitat of the river’s aquatic life.
  • Difficulty in migration:-
    • Dams make it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially spawning.
  • Loss of biodiversity:-
    • The area near the reservoir land tree gets submerged which leads to loss of biodiversity.
  • Changing cropping pattern:-
    • Due to the dams irrigation increased, which changed the cropping pattern, a farmer producing now commercial crops, over-irrigation, increased use of fertilizers, insecticides resulted in land degradation.
  • Increasing social gap:-
    • The richer section like industrialists, urban dwellers, rich farmers benefited from the dam but not the poor so it increases the social gap between the rich and poor.

Multipurpose river project

  • These are some 600 project big and small in India.
  • These project serve more than one purpose, so they called multi-purpose projects.
  • Former P.M. late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed dams as “the modern temple of India“.
Water Resources Class 10 Notes
Rainwater Harvesting

What is Rainwater Harvesting?

  • Rainwater harvesting is a technique of collection and storage of rainwater into a natural reservoir or tanks known as Rainwater harvesting.
  • Rainwater Harvesting in Earlier Times:-
    • In hilly and mountain regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ of the western Himalayas for agriculture.
    • In semi-arid or arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain-fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan.

What is Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting?

  • In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan like Bikaner, Phalodi, and Barmer, the rainwater of rooftop is harvested.
  • The rooftop rainwater is stored in Tanks & the could be as large a big room.
  • One household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 meter deep, 4.27 meter long, and 2.44 meter wide.
  • The tanks were part of the well developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard.
  • They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe.
  • Rain falling on the rooftop would travel down the pipe and be stored in the underground ‘tanks’.
  • The first spell of rain was usually not collected because this would clean the roofs and the pipes.
  • The rainwater from the next showers was then collected.
  • It’s a reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
  • Rainwater is known as Palar pani, its the purest form of water.
  • Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tanks to beat the summer heat and would keep the room cool.

Some examples of Rainwater Harvesting

  1. In Tamil Nadu, Shillong, Meghalaya every household in the city has a rooftop rainwater harvesting structure. [CBSE 2019]
  2. Nearly 15.25% of the total water requirement of the household comes from rooftop water harvesting.
  3. In the western Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rain harvesting is on the decline.
  4. Due to the availability of water due to the perennial Rajasthan canal, some houses still maintain the tanks since they do not like the taste of tap water.
  5. In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka villagers have installed a rainwater harvesting system in their house hold’s rooftop to meet their water needs.
    1. Nearly 200 households have installed this.
    2. Gendathur receives as annual precipitation of 1000mm.
    3. 80% of the rainwater has collected with about 10 filings.
    4. Every household can collect and use about 50000 liters of water annually.
    5. From 20 houses the net amount of rainwater harvested annually amounts to 100000 liters.

Bamboo Drip Irrigation System

  • In Meghalaya, bamboo drip irrigation system is in practice from 200 years in traditional form.
  • Bamboo pipes are used to transport water over hundreds of meters.
  • About 18-20 liters of water enters the bamboo pipe near spring water, get transported over hundreds of meters.
  • Finally reduce to 20-80 drops per minutes at the site of the plants.

About- Water Resources class 10 notes

In Water Resources class 10 notes we cover so many topic like Bamboo Drip irrigation, Raiwater Harvesting, Conservation of water and so many other topics we cover in Water Resources Class 10 Notes.

So I hope you like Water Resources Class 10 Notes and if like then please give your valuable feedback in the comment box(below), how we more improve Water Resources Class 10 Notes.

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11 Comments

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