Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes: CBSE | Chapter 4 | Civics
Introduction:- I know that you searching for complete notes of the Working of Institutions chapter and also that are very easy to learn, easy to understand, and also important question contains. So you visit the right place in this article we cover every topic from your NCERT Civics- Working of Institutions. So let’s start our Working of Institutions chapter with a simple question- WHAT IS OFFICE MEMORANDUM?
In India, there are three type of Institutions:-
- The legislative,
- The executive,
- And the Judiciary.
What is Office memorandum?
- It was a government order and passed on August 13, 1990.
- This order was concerned with reservation of 27% of seats in civil service for SEBS(Social and Economically Backward Classes).
- This order was very short looks like a notice.
- It was signed by the joint secretary(An office in the department of personal and training).
- Its number was 360 12/21/9- east(SCT) date 13-8-1990.
- This was a concern with one of the recommendations given by the Mandal commission.
- It was implement by the initiative of Janta Dal and PM of that time UP Singh.
- Later it became a matter of dispute.
- Finally, it was implement again with some change on 8 September 1993.
Who are the decision makers?
- The president who is the head of the state having formal authority.
- The Prime Minister the head of government and actually exercise all government power.
- The Parliament consists of two houses the Lok Sabha and the Raja Sabha.
How those decision Makers were involved in the decision regarding the office memorandum? (imp.)
- First of all, improve the condition of second backward classes the government of India appointed the second backward classes commission.
- Its head was B.P. Mandal so that commission was also known as Mandal commission.
- The commission suggested so many points for the betterment of SEBC.
- It submitted in a report in 1980.
- One of the recommendations of the Mandal commission was the reservation of 27% of seats in government jobs.
- In the Lok Sabha election of 1989, the Janta Dal promised to implement the Mandal commission report.
- The Janta Dal was the Lok Sabha election and P.M., U.P. Singh implements the office memorandum.
Involvement of Decision-makers in Implementation of Office Memorandum
- President ➦ She in his address to the parliament announced the intension to implement the recommendation of the Mandal commission.
- The P.M ➦
- On 16th August 1920, the union cabinet took the formal decision to implement the recommendation.
- The next day P.M. VP Singh informed the parliament about this decision.
- And seed and it to the depth personal and training and signed by the joint secretary of this depth.
3. Parliament ➦
- The Mandal commission discusses in Parliament for many days.
- Many Parliament and parties demanding and implement of the Mandal commission.
- All those things show that it was approve in the Parliament.
Discuss the dispute arise with the office memorandum?
- The person who did not belong to SEBC fell that it was unfair.
- It denies equality of opportunity in the job.
- They were not able to get jobs even they were more qualified.
- It distributed national unity.
Who resolved the dispute arises with office memorandum?
- The supreme court resolves the disputes.
- This dispute was between the government and the people.
- This case was known as Saawhnoy and other v/s Union of India case.
- Eleven judges heard this case.
- In 1992, the judges declare that the government order was valid.
- They asked the government to modify it in the original order.
- It said that well to do people were excluded from these benefits.
- This order was reissued on 8th September 1993.
Why we need political institutions?
- The Legislative ➦ The President the Prime Minister in the cabinet and Parliament take important policy decisions.
- The Executives ➦ The political and permanent executive(civil servant) are responsible for taking steps to implement the decision.
- The judiciary ➦ Supreme court is an institution where all types of dispute citizens and government are settled.
“Working with Institution is not easy” explain why?
- These institutions have some rules and regulations.
- It takes a lot of time to takes a decision in meetings and committees etc.
- It leads to delays.
- Some times it got frustrating when the decision making takes a lot of time.
- It takes time out decisions are accept by the majority.
- So, it strengthens the spirit of democracy.
Parliament:- Its an assembly of the elected representative with exercise supreme political authority on behalf of the citizen.
Authority Function of the Parliament
- It makes law for the country and can change existing laws a abolish existing laws and make new laws in their place.
- It existence control over those who run the government.
- Parliament control all the money that the government.
- Its the highest form on debate and discussion and debate of public issues and national policy.
There are two houses in Parliament:-
- Rajya Sabha
- Lok Sabha
1- Rajya Sabha
- Its the upper house and the member are not directly elected by citizen.
- This is a permanent body and it can’t be dissolve.
- Its term is six years every 1/3rd membered a retired for after two years.
- The age of the members is 30 years.
2- Lok Sabha
- Its the lower house and the member are directly elected by citizen.
- This is not a permanent body. It can dissolve after 5 years.
- In terms, 5 years and age of members is 25 years.
‘Lok Sabha is a lower house but it has supreme power than Rajya Sabha’. How? (imp.)
- Any ordinary law needs to be pass by both the house of the parliament.
- But it there is a difference between two houses.
- The final decision is taken in a joint session of both the house.
- Due to the larger number of members in Lok Sabha the view of Lok Sabha likely to prevail due to more votes.
- Lok Sabha exercises more power in any matter.
- Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget of the government or any other money-related law the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it.
- The Rajya Sabha can only delay it say it lays 14 days or suggest a change in it.
- The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these changes.
- The Lok Sabha controls the council of minister.
- If the majority of the Lok Sabha member say they have no confidence in the council of minister.
- All minister including the Prime Minister has to quite.
- Rajya Sabha has no power regarding this.
Political executive V/S Permanent executive(civil servant)
- Not elected by a citizen.
- Long period, low powerful than the political executive.
- They have perfect knowledge of their technical field.
- The artists, political leaders in taking major policy decisions.
- They are not answerable to the citizen.
Political executive:- Those who execute or implement the government order, policies are called the political executive.
- Elected by a citizen.
- Short period, more powerful then permanent executive.
- They may or may not have knowledge of their technical field.
- And take the major decisions of their respected by field.
- They are answerable to the citizen what they did.
How a Prime Minister is appoint? (imp.)
- He is the most important political institution in the country.
- There is no direct election for the past of P.M.
- The President appoints the P.M.
- But the president cannot appoint anyone he/she likes.
- The President appoint the leader of the majority party(whether the leader single party or condition party) is Lok Sabha.
- In case no single party or alliance gets a majority the president appoints the person most likely to secure majority support.
- The P.M. does not have fixed tenure.
How the minister are appoint?
- The president appointed the other minister on the advice of P.M.
- The Minister is chosen from a party or coalition that has a majority in the Lok Sabha.
- The P.M. choose that person as a minister as long as he is the number of parliament.
- But some times a person is not the members of parliament but become the minister.
- But such a person has to get elected to one of the houses of the parliament with six months of appointment as minister.
Council of Minister:- Its the official name for the body that included all the Minister it his 60 to 80 minister of different.
- Top-level minister.
- They take a decision on the name of the council of the Minister.
- There are 20 ministers in it.
Minister of state with Independent charge
- They are smaller minister then cabinet minister.
- They participate in cabinet meetings only they invited.
Minister of State:-They are the lower-level ministers and they are required to assist Cabinet Minister.
- All ministers cannot meet regularly so the decision is taken in the Cabinet meeting.
- That is why most of the democratic countries are called Cabinet from of government.
- The cabinet work as a team every minister has to accept the cabinet decision.
- No minister can openly criticize any decision of the government.
- The cabinet is assisted by Cabinet secretaries(this include many semi or civil servant) who assist different cabinet minister.
Power of the Prime Minister
- He is the head of the government and it has wide-ranging power.
- The coordinates the work of the different department.
- He chairs the cabinet meeting.
- If any disputes arise between different department his decision is final.
- He distributes or redistributes the work of the Minister.
- He can dismiss the minister quits and most powerful in the cabinets.
- He is the head of the state(country) and exercises only nominal power.
- He supervises the function of the institution but he is not directly elected by the citizen.
- The MPs and MLA’s elect the president and President is the nominal executive of the nation.
Power of the President(imp.)
- All government activities take place in the name of the president.
- And all law and major policy decisions are issued on the president’s name.
- All major appointment is done by the president:-
- Chief Justice of India.
- The judge of the Supreme Court and High Court.
- The government of estate.
- The election commissioner of India.
- The ambassadress.
- All international treaties are made in her name.
- The president is the supreme commander of the defense force of India.
- The president can only ask to reconsider the advice but if some advice is given to them he is bound to act according to it.
- He appoints the P.M. on his own from the majority party in Lok Sabha.
- If no party is in majority in Lok Sabha he can appoint a P.M. who can make a majority in Lok Sabha within a specified period of time.
President from of government
- The president is the head of state as well as the government.
- Directly elected by the citizen and he has much power.
- He himself choose and appoint the minister.
- He has vote power regarding any law. Example- Tenure is 4 years.
Parliament any from of government
- The president is the head of state only.
- Not directly elected by a citizen.
- He has only nominal power.
- He just appoints the minister on the advice of P.M.
- But he has no voting power. Example- Tenure is 5 years in India.
Define the Judiciary
- All courts at different levels in the country are called Judiciary.
- Indian Judiciary consists of:-
- Supreme court(court of country level)
- High court(court of state-level)
- The district court(court of district level)
- Cases they hear:-
- Between citizens of the country.
- Between citizens and the government.
- Between two or more state governments.
- Between government at the union and state level.
- It’s an independent body because the judge does not work under the control of the legislative or executive.
- The judge of the supreme court selects the new judge of the supreme court and high court.
- Once a judge of the supreme court and high court are appointed by the president on the advice of P.M. with a consultation with the chief justice of India.
- He is removed only when 2/3rd members of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha agreed to remove him.
The Power of Judiciary
- The right to interpret the constitution.
- They can invalid any law by legislative.
- It also informs that the court’s point of the constitution does not change by Parliament.
- In an act as the guardian of fundamental rights.
- The court intervenes to prevent the misuse of government power.
- They check the malpractice of public officials and executives.
About- Working of Institutions class 9 notes
Hi everyone, in Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes we learn so many topics like the power of the judiciary, Power of the President, How the minister is appointed? and so many other topics we read in this notes and I hope you like Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes so please share with your friend and give your value able feedback what we improve in this notes.
Read other chapter notes…
Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes | Civics
Democratic Rights Class 9 Notes | Civics
Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes | Civics
The French revolution class 9 Notes | History
People as a Resource Class 9 Notes | Economics
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Notes | Economics
Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes | Economics
Food Security in India Class 9 Notes | Economics
Food Security in India Class 9 Notes | Economics
India Size and Location Class 9 Notes | Geography
Drainage Class 9 Notes | Geography
Climate Class 9 Notes | Geography
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes | Geography
Population Class 9 Notes | Geography